ISIS Report 14/09/04
Non-GM Iron Rice a Solution?
Is genetic engineering necessary to develop rice rich in iron?
Lim Li Ching reports on successes
achieved with conventional breeding.
Sources for this
article are posted on ISIS members website.
Iron deficiency is the most common of all nutritional deficiencies.
Approximately 3.7 billion people suffer from this condition, and it is most
widespread in children and lactating mothers. Iron deficiency leads to anaemia;
overall, 39% of pre-school children and 52% of pregnant women are anaemic, of
whom more than 90% live in developing countries.
Anaemia is bad for health and development. In infants and young
children, it impairs growth, cognitive development and immunity; at school age
it affects school performance and reduces activity levels; at adulthood it
reduces work capacity and lowers resistance to fatigue. In pregnant women, it
is linked with an increased risk of maternal mortality and illness, as well as
an increased risk of pre-term delivery, retarded foetal growth, low birth
weight and foetal death soon after birth.
Iron tablets are a possible solution, but require a continuous supply
and can cause side effects. In the long term, ensuring adequate iron intake
through food is viewed as the best option. For most populations, the best
sources of iron are meat products, but these are relatively expensive and
little consumed by the poor.
Conventionally bred biofortified rice
Rice, the staple diet of millions in the developing world, is a poor
source of micronutrients. Where rice is the staple, about two billion people
suffer from iron-deficiency anaemia. Efforts have thus focussed on
biofortifying rice to make it nutritionally better. Genetically
engineering rice to increase its iron content has been one course of action
(see "Rice in Asia: Too little
iron, too much arsenic", this series).
But is genetic engineering needed to develop iron-rich rice? There are
already successes reported in naturally breeding and selecting rice with high
iron content, which would not carry the risks associated with genetic
Plant breeders at the Philippines-based International Rice Research
Institute (IRRI) have identified rice varieties that are naturally high in
iron. They screened nearly 7 000 samples of rice germplasm stored in the IRRI
gene bank, for high iron and zinc content. Of these, 1 138 samples were grown.
They found that aromatic grains were usually higher in iron concentration and
often also higher in zinc, compared to non-aromatic varieties. Data from
various studies demonstrated that high iron and high zinc traits were generally
expressed in all rice environments tested.
IRRI at the same time was trying to grow, by conventional breeding, new
varieties that could thrive in poor soils and cold temperatures. "Quite by
chance, it was discovered that one of the varieties designed to tolerate low
temperatures had also inherited a richness in iron and zinc from one of its
parents," explains IRRI scientist Dr. Glenn Gregorio.
This aromatic variety is a cross between a high-yielding variety and a
traditional variety from India, from which IRRI identified an improved line
(IR68144-3B-2-2-3) with high iron concentration. The grain has 21 parts per
million (mg/kg) of iron, about double the normal content in rice, and also
about 34 parts per million of zinc.
Research has shown that high zinc and iron densities are positively
correlated. Zinc may enhance the bodys capacity to absorb iron. It is
essential for a healthy immune system. Zinc deficiency in children is also
associated with poor growth, reduced motor and cognitive development, and
increased infectious diseases. It is linked to pregnancy and childbirth
complications, lower birth weight and other foetal effects lasting through
childhood. Moreover, high zinc density is good for seedling vigour, improving
plant yields. IR68144 is also reported to have a high content of Vitamin A.
"Almost as a bonus, it had good flavour, texture, and cooking qualities.
And, to please the farmers, it was also high-yielding." This bodes well, for
adding new traits can sometimes have a general negative effect on yield. The
rice also has good tolerance to rice tungro virus and to mineral-deficient
soils. All these factors are important for maintaining crop productivity and
consumer acceptance, crucial to ensure that new varieties sustain farmers
Trials establish that iron is absorbed
Does the increased iron content translate into improved iron status in
the consumer? After 15 minutes of polishing, scientists found that IR68144 had
approximately 80% more iron than a popular but low-iron commercial variety.
Research conducted at Cornell University showed that the iron in IR68144
polished rice was absorbed by laboratory rats, and by human colon cells in
"Then we fed some other high-iron varieties experimentally to a family
of two parents and four children living near IRRIs headquarters in the
Philippine province of Laguna," Dr. Gregorio said. "All but the father were
mildly anaemic. After the family members ate the enriched rice for two months,
however, their serum ferritin levels rose dramatically, to the point where the
lowest of them was double the level recommended for good health."
In 1999, a trial was carried out on 27 women in the Philippines, who ate
IR68144 exclusively over six months. The volunteers - sisters at a Roman
Catholic convent had their food measured, their activity monitored and
body weight noted. Once a month, their blood was tested. The sisters were
selected because they represent a sex and age segment of the population at high
risk of iron deficiency.
Most of the sisters, aged between 20 and 30 years old, were mildly
anaemic while on their normal diet of rice purchased from the market. 74% were
anaemic (haemoglobin <120 g/L) and 48% were iron-deficient (serum ferritin
<12 µg/L). But, after eating IR68144, the serum ferritin (an iron
storage protein) levels in their blood increased - in many instances two or
three times higher. In some cases, this was sufficient to raise their iron
levels from deficient to above average.
A much larger and carefully structured clinical trial, involving 300
sisters from eight convents around Manila concluded in September 2003. In one
of the largest human feeding trials of a staple food, each sister was randomly
assigned to receive either regular (low-iron) rice or the high-iron variety.
The sisters and the research team were not told what they were receiving during
the trial. The food was cooked in a common kitchen and consumed in a common
dining room, so the distribution and consumption of different rice varieties
could be carefully monitored.
The sisters iron status, as shown by haemoglobin and other
biochemical indicators, was measured before the trial began, halfway (4.5
months) and at the conclusion (9 months). Women remaining - or newly -
iron-deficient at the end of the trial were given iron supplements to ensure
this deficiency was corrected. The trial also examined the interplay of
minerals and nutrients within the body to look at their interactions, and
observed the sisters cognitive functions and capacity to concentrate.
Preliminary analysis of the data indicates positive results. There was
modest improvement in blood iron levels, showing that iron in rice endosperm is
absorbed by the body. Among the women who were iron-deficient but not yet
anaemic at the start of the trial, total body iron reserves improved
significantly. The women who consumed high-iron rice took in about 20% more
iron per day than those who ate regular rice, and increased their body iron by
10%, while the women consuming control rice actually lost 6% of their body
iron. The greatest increases in body iron were seen in the women who consumed
the most iron from biofortified rice. The results of the study are being
The next step would be to conduct trials on the effect and use of
high-iron rice in a community setting and on the effect on childrens iron
status. A study is planned in Bangladesh in 20042005. If successful,
IR68144 seeds will be given to agricultural research organizations in various
countries for adaptability testing and to begin crossbreeding for pest and
disease resistance as well as hardiness for local conditions.
IR68144 or its offspring could then be released to farmers in developing
countries, for free, in two or three years. Meanwhile, IRRIs search
continues, among the 26 000 samples of rice varieties it holds in trust for
humankind. Dr. Gregorio is sure that a new variety could be bred with even
higher iron content. IR68144 could be the first of several traditional rice
varieties found to be nutritionally richer than previously thought.
Already, recent reports indicate that Thailands Department of
Agriculture has identified two rice strains - selected from 45 strains of Thai
rice - that can accumulate iron. Korkhor 23 has an iron content of 36.67 parts
per million (ppm) when unpolished, reduced to 22.5ppm when polished. Unpolished
Khao Hom Phitsanulok 1 rice has an iron content of 25ppm, compared with 22.5ppm
in it polished state. Rice grown in different areas have different rates of
iron accumulation. Research continues to find better iron-accumulating strains,
and to determine the best growing and milling techniques to preserve iron in
the rice. However, Dr. Laddawal Kannanut of the Rice Research Institute was
quoted as saying that genetic engineering would be used to improve the
strains ability to accumulate iron.
This is unnecessary, for as the IRRI research shows, conventional
breeding can successfully develop high-iron rice that is both high yielding and
disease resistant. Conventional breeding works because iron occurs naturally in
rice grains and the high variability in the grain iron content allows selection
of high-iron parents for crossbreeding. Moreover, farmers will grow the
iron-dense rice because its high-yielding characteristic makes it profitable to
do so. And, trace minerals such as iron are undetected by the human eye and
thus do not affect consumers preference.
In future, it wont be just rice that is targeted for
biofortification. Significant funding has been committed to develop
biofortified crops. The IR68144 research is now part of a larger initiative by
the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and its
research centres worldwide, coordinated by the International Food Policy
Research Institute (IPFRI). In October 2003, the Gates Foundation committed $25
million to this initiative, HarvestPlus, which aims to develop crops with
enhanced nutrient status: not just with iron but also with vitamin A and zinc
and in other key staple crops important to the poor (wheat, maize, beans,
cassava, and sweet potato).
The danger is that the efforts will focus on genetic engineering, at the
expense of safer alternatives. For example, IRRI claims that for vitamin A
enhancement, genetic engineering is needed, as vitamin A does not occur
naturally in rice grains. In 1999, Swiss scientists successfully expressed
vitamin A in transgenic rice grains the so-called Golden
Rice. IRRI is now incorporating the vitamin A genes into high yielding
Biofortifying food crops, even by means of conventional breeding, must
not replace other interventions such as diversifying diets, conventional
fortification and supplementation. Efforts to enhance the iron content of rice
must also be mindful of the interaction between iron and arsenic, a particular
problem for the arsenic-contaminated paddy fields of Asia (see "Rice in Asia: Too little iron, too
much arsenic", this series). In addition, in areas where iron intake is
high, iron overload can become a real problem.
The need for biofortification today is largely due to the mistakes of
the past. For example Green Revolution methods have mined the soil of nutrients
and monocultures have resulted in the loss of diverse traditional varieties.
Alternative food sources rich in iron should be promoted, as should diverse
cropping and sustainable agriculture. This could prove to be a much more
sustainable strategy in addressing iron deficiency.