ISIS Report 12/09/11
The Z Theory of Everything
How cold fusion and antigravity
experiments led engineer/physicist Frank Znidarsic to a new causal theory that relates
all natural forces and might well have interested Einstein; but is he right? Dr. Mae-Wan Ho
A fully referenced version of this paper is posted on ISIS members website and is available for download here. A more extended technical version is also available for download.
The ultimate ToE
Electrical engineer and
physicist Frank Znidarsic has been investigating new sources of energy for
twenty years following the trail of cold fusion and antigravity research. He
finally came up with a startling new theory of quantum reality that relates all
the natural forces including gravity [1-3], but has yet to publish in a mainstream
journal, though there is a peer reviewed paper accepted for publication ,
co-authored with Glen Robertson of NASA Marshall Laboratory. At Znidarsic’s
request , I looked into his theory and became sufficiently convinced to
write about it.
The unification of all forces – ‘a theory of everything’ or
ToE - a project started by Albert Einstein and taken up by many after him, has
become the holy grail of theoretical physics. Although the unification of weak
electromagnetic and strong nuclear forces has been achieved, gravity remains
beyond the pale of existing physical laws. If Znidarsic is right, his theory (which
I shall call the Z Theory) may well lead to an understanding of the range and
the strength of the force fields and can also provide an explanation for
Planck’s constant, the fine structure constant, the Bohr atom, the quantum
jump, and the intensity of atomic emission spectra, etc., a long list of unsolved
mysteries, or mysteries accepted to have no explanations by the scientific
community. No other candidate ToE has come close to accomplishing all that,
and especially not the standard theory of the universe that’s in danger of
going down in history as the most spectacular failure of big science (see
boson is a boojum
conference in August 2011 scheduled to announce the discovery of the Higgs
boson that would confirm the standard theory of the universe, scientists at
CERN have had to admit the “god particle” might not exist at all . Earlier
in July, scientists in US Fermilab near Chicago, who have been searching for
the Higgs boson for nearly 30 years said they hoped to establish if the Higgs
exists by the end of September when the Tevatron closes down.
If the Higgs boson does not exist, it would have been the most
spectacular failure of big science, as well as the most phenomenal waste of
taxpayer’s money. Physicist Shahriar Afshar already warned of “chaos and
infighting” among scientists, and a complete loss of confidence among the
general public and taxpayer , should the Higgs boson fail to turn up
The Large Hadron Collider, purpose-built to hunt for the Higgs
boson, is housed in a 27 km circular tunnel buried 175 m beneath the
Swiss-French border at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in the
suburbs of Geneva . It took 16 years and a consortium of 20 nations
spending a total of US$10 billion to complete , plus a yearly operating cost
of $1 billion .
It began operating in September 2008, but a “spectacular failure”
due the an explosion between two of the collider’s powerful superconducting
electromagnets shut it down for more than a year. When it reopened, it operated
at only half power at 3.5 trillion electron volts (TeV) per proton instead of
the 7 TeV for which it was designed . At the end of 2011, all CERN
accelerators will shut down for 15 months for repairs, including an unknown
number of magnets that have mysteriously lost the ability to handle the high
currents and produce the high fields necessary to run the Collider at full
strength. The Collider is scheduled to start up again in 2013 with proton
energies of 6.5 TeV.
CERN plans an upgrade to a total proton energy of 33 TeV over the
next 20 years, almost as much as the US superconducting super collider
cancelled by Congress in 1993. Meanwhile, the ‘good news’ is “Higgs particle
could be found by Christmas” , or most likely not.
The Z Theory
is simple and intuitive once the basic physics and engineering concepts are
explained, thanks to enthusiastic fellow physicist Lane Davis , who has created
an excellent series of more than 20 videos posted on YouTube . Davis takes
you from high school electromagnetism and practical everyday engineering
through highly controversial cold fusion and anti-gravity research to the elementary
algebra that encapsulates the Z theory, proving how all the fundamental
constants are reduced to just one, the velocity of sound in the atomic nucleus
of about 1 million metres per second, 1.093846 x 106 m/s, to be more
is narrated by Davis himself, illustrated throughout with examples from games
and sports, and peppered with irrelevant, irreverent, and sometimes comic relief
from the maths. And for a grand finale, the ‘master’ equation is presented in
rap. Wish I had a physics teacher like that when I was young.
A rare talent for translating between physical intuition and mathematics
Znidarsic’s strength is his ability to
translate effortlessly between abstruse theoretical/ mathematical concepts and physical
intuitions of mechanical and electrical interactions; a rare talent in danger
of being snuffed out altogether by an education system that separates
scientists from engineers, the theoretical and academic from the practical and
began by visiting laboratories engaged in unusual research shunned and
denigrated by the mainstream academic community: cold (nuclear) fusion in
electrolytic cells and gravity modification with spinning magnetic fields. The
velocity of about 1 million metres per second kept turning up in both types of
experiments. The common ingredients are electromagnetic interactions in condensed
matter, leading to nuclear fusion in one setting, and in the other, antigravity
effects. Znidarsic decided that the velocity of 1 million metres per second is
that of ‘sound’ within the nucleus, and from then on, it was plain sailing as
he homed in on the Z theory.
The velocity of sound in the nucleus and
The velocity of 1.094 million metres per
second is the lynchpin of the Z theory. The quantum transition (quantum jump),
which so mystified and frustrated Einstein and many great quantum physicists,
is the result of a classical impedance match – a match that allows energy to
flow directly without resistance within the atomic structure - when the
velocity of light in the outer electronic orbitals of the atom equals the
velocity of sound within its nucleus, i.e., 1.094 million metres per
second, and energy transfer can take place with 100 percent efficiency. The 100
efficient process emits one photon, not a series of progressively smaller
photons that would be emitted by less efficient non-impedance matched system.
At the same time,
momentum – the quantity of motion, or impetus - is carried by the magnetic
components of the electronic and nuclear force fields. This requires us to
accept that magnetism is not a conserved property, but can be greatly
amplified locally, in the same way that inserting an iron core inside a coil of
wire carrying an electric current greatly amplifies the magnetic field passing
through the core. Crucially, the magnitude of the electromagnetic,
gravitomagnetic, and nuclear forces converge during the quantum transition,
enabling the separate fields to exchange energy in one single step.
It is this increase
in the magnetic component of the strong nuclear force that makes nuclear fusion
possible – without the need for thermonuclear temperatures – and sometimes
results in the appearance of local gravitational anomaly.
That is the gist of the theory,
which I shall explain in more detail, starting with a brief look backwards at
conventional quantum mechanics.
Potted history of quantum mechanics
Physicist Max Planck in Germany initiated
the present era of quantum physics by introducing the idea at the beginning of
the past century that light (and the entire electromagnetic spectrum) comes in
tiny packets or quanta, the energy E of each quantum being
proportional to the frequency of light f, as in Equation (1) for
Einstein’s photoelectric effect.
E = hf (1)
The proportionality constant h is
Planck’s constant – the smallest unit of action - named after its discoverer.
Planck’s constant is derived from experiments, and accounted for the discrete
spectral lines of sunlight and light emitted from elements excited by X-rays,
but Planck had no explanation as to where that constant comes from.
Danish physicist Niels
Bohr applied Planck’s constant to the structure of the atom in a model with
electrons orbiting the nucleus rather like planets orbiting around the sun in
our solar system. Bohr’s model of the atom is quantized, i.e., it has electrons
orbiting the nucleus at different energy levels in multiples of Planck’s
constant. It explained the emission spectrum of the atoms in terms of quantum
transitions from higher to lower energy orbits, and accounted for the chemical
properties of the elements. However, according to classical electromagnetic
theory due to Scottish physicist and mathematician James Clerk Maxwell,
orbiting electrons are accelerating all the time and should continuously emit
electromagnetic energy, and hence soon fall into the nucleus. Bohr’s model
could not explain the stability of the atom, nor can it produce the probability
of quantum transitions from one energy level to another, among other things.
French physicist Louis
deBroglie offered the solution. He proposed that the electron has wave-like
properties. The electron does not circulate in orbits around the nucleus.
Instead, it encircles the nucleus in the form of a standing wave, and a
particle-like photon is emitted as these standing waves instantaneously
collapse during a quantum transition. This wave-particle duality of light and
matter is a paradox in quantum physics, for which there is no explanation.
accepted ‘Copenhagen interpretation’ proposed by German-born physicist and
mathematician Max Born tries to get around those difficulties by saying that
deBroglie’s matter waves are just a mathematical construct and not real.
Einstein rejected the Copenhagen interpretation and believed to his dying day
that the theory of quantum mechanics is not complete.
It is against such
a backdrop that Znidarsic’s theory emerged, thanks to new observations rejected
by the establishment on ground that they cannot be explained within
conventional physics, quantum or classical. Instead of questioning conventional
physics, the establishment closed its collective mind and locked out the true
scientists who welcome new challenges, and would sacrifice almost anything in
pursuit of beauty and truth (see  Beauty and
Truth in Science and Art, ISIS publication).
What cold fusion and antigravity experiments
We have reviewed cold fusion experiments
extensively beginning four years ago, and most recently in connection with its
possible commercialisation  (Cold
Fusion Ready for Commercial Production? SiS 51). ‘Cold fusion’
refers to nuclear fusion reactions that happen in desk top devices, such as
electrolytic cells, at well below thermonuclear temperatures of millions of
degrees Centigrade. These reactions - first demonstrated in 1989 by
electrochemists Martin Fleishman at University of Southampton in the UK and
Stanley Pons at Utah University in the US – aroused a storm of controversy that
has yet to subside, with detractors calling cold fusion research ‘quackery’ and
I am convinced
that cold fusion works, and in many different forms, all dependent on the
collective quantum properties of condensed matter that conventional quantum
mechanics has yet to take into proper account. There are already several
theories that explains cold fusion in terms of collective quantum properties
(or quantum coherence)  (How Cold Fusion Works,
SiS 36); Znidarsic’s theory is one of them, but at a much more general
and fundamental level.
that cold fusion reactions proceed in a (coherent) domain of 50-100 nanometres
on being excited with energy input in the range of about 1013-1014
Hz. The product of the domain size –taking it to be equal to the grain
structure in the cathode metal - and the frequency of excitation energy gives
one million metres per second, a velocity that Znidarsic calls the quantum
transitional velocity, Vt.
The gravity experiments
of Russian-born Eugene Podkletnov, which inspired Znidarsic, were originally
carried out at Tempere University of Technology in Finland, until Podkletnov
was dismissed from the University when a journalist reported his work as
‘antigravity’, a term Podkletnov himself never used [17-19]. The best results were
obtained when a 3 megahertz AC magnetic field was used to stimulate the 0.3 meter
diameter superconducting toroidal disk spinning in a levitated state over the
magnetic field . (This levitation of the superconducting disc itself has
nothing to do with gravity. It is relatively well understood as the effect of
the repulsive force generated by the superconducting disc against the magnetic
field ). A gravity anomaly appeared above the disc, in the form of reduced
atmospheric pressure and reduced weight of up to 2 percent or more [17-19],
that cannot be explained by the usual diamagnetic interaction, as it depends
solely on mass, and not on the nature of the material itself. The product of
the disc size (the coherent domain as wavelength of the electromagnetic field)
and the stimulation frequency once again, as in the case of cold fusion, gives
a velocity of about 1 million metres per second, the same quantum transition
velocity, Vt, which Znidarsic identified as the velocity of ‘sound’ or
optical phonons within the superconducting disc.
Cold fusion and
antigravity appear totally unrelated to the casual observer. But Znidarsic
noted the connection via the velocity of ‘sound’ or phonons within the coherent
domain of 50 nm in the cold fusion experiments and the much larger 0.3 m superconducting
disc in the gravity modification experiments. The clue lies in the correlated
electronic vibrations of the atoms within the coherence domain, which
physicists call a ‘Bose Einstein condensate’ (BSC): all the atoms in that state
act as one, and can be considered a single entity.
combination of intuitive imagination and analogies to mechanical vibrating
system within the atom, Znidarsic showed that the velocity Vt, is very
likely to be equal to the speed of sound in the nucleus (see Box 2). (For those who get intimidated by equations, please skip over the box, as it just
adds corroborative details in subatomic vibrations to make the transitional
velocity Vt credible.)
the speed of ‘sound’ in the nucleus
electrons as force fields vibrating back and forth towards the nucleus, or
better yet, as particles attached to an elastic band and engaged in harmonic
motion. The strength of the restoring force is directly proportional to the
square of the displacement of the particle from its rest position, i.e., the
greater the displacement, the stronger the restoring force, up to a maximum, Fmax
of 29.05 Newtons at the radius of the electron re (which is half the classical radius of the electron).
The elastic constant, K-e, which determines the magnitude of
the restoring force, is an inverse function of the displacement rx
multiplied by Fmax.
K-e = Fmax
/ rx (1B)
expansive electromagnetic force of the electron is counteracted by the
compressive, strong nuclear force acting in the opposite direction. At points where
the forces balance, the elastic constant of the electron field equals the
elastic constant of the nuclear field and the harmonic motion of a nucleon
(proton) is produced. The frequency of this harmonic motion fn,
is given by Equation (2B) (the division by 2p converts angular frequency
to frequency in Hertz, and Mn is the mass of the nucleon).
fn = 1/2p √( K-e
velocity Vt emerges as the product of the frequency at a
displacement equal to twice the momentum spacing of the nucleons, rn of 1.36 x10-15 m (larger
than the radius of a proton because of movement of adjacent nucleons; this comes from standard nuclear
physics when calculating the velocity of nucleons).
Vt is therefore the speed of
‘sound’ or phonons generated by vibrations of nucleons within the nucleus.
Vt, the speed of sound within the nucleus, is also exhibited across
atomic distances within the coherent domains of cold fusion experiments and
across the macroscopic distance of the superconducting disc in gravity
When the speed
of light in the electronic structure of the atom equals the speed of sound in
the nucleus, energy transfer can occur without loss at 100 percent efficiency. This
is a condition similar to that of a billiard ball hitting directly another pool
ball. All of the energy is transferred at once without bounce. A similar
condition results in the emission of a single photon. Conversely, a ball
bouncing off of the earth is an example of a non-impedance matched system. The
earth does not move at the speed of the bouncing ball and the ball gives up
energy in a series of progressivity smaller bounces. A series of progressively
smaller photons are not emitted during a quantum jump and Znidarsic concluded
that the process of quantum jumping is one of impedance matching.
Light or electromagnetic radiation in
vacuum has a much higher velocity, c = 299,792,458 metres
per second, nearly 300 times as large as the velocity of sound in the nucleus
of atoms identified by Znidarsic. In order for light in the electronic
structure to match the velocity sound in the nucleus, it must be slowed down
nearly 300-fold. Light does indeed propagate at reduced velocity through dense
media; the refraction of light in water is an everyday example. In the
laboratory, scientists have managed to slow light down even to a standstill in
a BSC of atoms [21, 22] (see  Trapping Light, SiS
In a similar way, the external
stimulating electromagnetic fields are trapped and slowed down within the
coherent domains in cold fusion and superconducting disc in the gravity
modification experiments. And when the slowed electromagnetic velocity matches the velocity of sound within the nucleus, there
is no longer any barrier to energy transfer, and cold fusion can proceed .
Amplification of magnetic fields by BEC
and “zero point energy”
The gravity modification experiments show
that gravity is indeed tied up with electromagnetic forces in some mysterious
ways, as has already been suggested by the work of other physicists, notably Robert
Dicke, Bernard Haisch, and Harold Puthoff in the United States [24-29]. Dicke and Puthoff proposed that mass alters the electric permittivity
and the magnetic permeability of spacetime . Haisch and coworker Alfonso
Rueda proposed that  “a background sea of quantum light” fills the universe
and generates a force that opposes acceleration, which is why matter seems to be
solid. So “maybe matter resists acceleration not because it possesses some
innate thing called mass…but because the zero-point field exerts a force
whenever acceleration takes place.”
Znidaric suggests that the BEC in
the superconducting disc somehow locally amplifies the magnetic components of
the forces. An increased magnetic field is required to carry the same amount of
energy at a lower velocity. The process is similar to that of a tsunami, as
the tidal wave slows, its height piles up in an amount necessary to carry its
This increased gravitomagnteic
field gives apparent antigravity effects. In other words, the weak and strong
forces and gravity balance out via their amplified magnetic components.
Znidarsic emphasizes that this does not violate any law of conservation, as it
is known that magnetic, as well as electric permittivity can be modified
locally. The BEC therefore, acts like a soft iron core, only much more so, as the
magnetic component of mass (gravitomagnetic force) is only 10-39 that
of the ordinary electromagnetic field
When asked how that amplification
could be achieved, Znidarsic says he does not exactly know, but suspects it
involves an increase in the magnetic component of the fields that compensates
for the reduced velocity of the fields; “just as water flows in a river bed
through a valley electrons transit between states through channels of matching
impedance.” Could this be the “zero-point energy” that has been the holy
grail of Haisch and Puthoff and their followers, including Podkletnov and
Znidaric , who see space-propulsion systems that can travel at 6 times the
speed of light, as Podkeltnov claims for his latest, as yet unpublished
experiments on gravity pulses ? I leave these tantalizing questions
hanging, while I go on to more immediate important things.
Planck’s constant and Bohr atom revisited
Vt, the velocity of quantum transition, is that at which the velocity
of light within the electronic structure of the atoms equals the velocity of
sound within its nuclear structure and the impedance of the interacting states
are matched, so energy is exchanged “without bounce” (i.e. with no barrier and
at 100 percent efficiency). That is what accounts for the quantization of
energy levels in the atom. Electrons attempt to flow along all possible paths
but they can only move between orbits through channels of matching impedance. Znidarsic
shows that Planck’s constant is based on Vt , which also
determines the energy levels of the Bohr hydrogen atom and the intensity and
probability of its spectral emissions.
In essence, the energy of the
photon is given by Equation (2) where Q is the elementary charge, and eo
is the electric permittivity of free space.
The terms within the brackets [ ] equals
Planck’s constant, and Equation (2) thereby reproduces Einstein’s famous
photoelectric relation in Equation (1). Planck’s constant is shown to be a
simple function of the elementary charge and the quantum transition velocity Vt.
Similarly, the principle radii
of the hydrogen atom rx is derived in Equation (3) where n
is an integer, Fmax is the maximum restoring force of 29.05
Newtons for harmonic motion of the electron at the radius of the electron, rp
is 1.309 x 10-15 metres, the radius of energetic accessibility (also half the classical radius of the electron, and comes
from an analysis where the electrical force is viewed as a spring), and M-e is the mass of the
electron, 9.109 x 10-31 kg.
The expression within the brackets [ ]
equals the ground state radius of the hydrogen atom, and the equation also
determines the principle energy levels of the hydrogen atom.
Finally, the probability of
quantum transition is shown to be the square of the intensity of the spectral
line, which is just the amplitude of electronic harmonic motion at transition, rt
given in Equation (4), where the terms between the brackets [ ] is again
The fine-structure constant explained
The fine-structure constant, a , is a
fundamental physical constant or coupling constant characterizing the strength
of the electromagnetic interaction introduced by theoretical German physicist Arnold
Sommerfeld in 1916, who found that it determined the splitting or
fine-structure of the hydrogen spectral lines. Its current value is
7.2973525698 x 10-3 or approximately 1/137 . It is defined in
terms of other fundamental constants, and the simplest formula is Equation (5),
where e is the elementary charge, ћ = h/2p is the
reduced Planck’s constant, c is the speed of light in vacuum, and ke
is the Coulomb constant. Its origin remains obscure, however.
a= kee2/ћc (5)
Znidarsic found a
simple expression for the fine structure constant given in Equation (6).
a = 2Vt/c (6)
As the ratio of two velocities, a is naturally dimensionless.
“Quantum mechanics a special case of
Znidarsic has derived quantum mechanics
from classical Newtonian mechanics, thereby showing that “quantum mechanics is
a special case of Newtonian mechanics”, rather than the other way round. This
is an enormous claim, and not likely to be easily accepted by the physics
establishment. The ball is now in their court, to show how and if Znidarsic is
There are 10 comments on this article so far. Add your comment
|Dr. Michael Clarjen-Arconada Comment left 12th September 2011 22:10:55|
Fascinating and thrilling are the implications of Znidarsic genial contribution: a new theory of quantum reality that relates all the natural forces including gravity.
Thank you Mae-Wan-Ho for the brilliant and thorough exposition integrating all the factors in the global equation: "Znidarsic has derived quantum mechanics from classical Newtonian mechanics, thereby showing that quantum mechanics is a special case of Newtonian mechanics, rather than the other way round." It is delightful to read through, savoring every word including the specific equations. It makes you salivate for more to come.
Appreciating the principle radii of the hydrogen atom (rx, equation 3)in understanding its principle energy levels, will enable human beings to harness better the over-abundant energy present on Earth, the Planet of water (H20)and light (sun).
As we dwell in the harmony of these equations, we discover intuitively that the solutions to our food an energy systems on Planet Earth have to come primordially from water-hydrogen and sun-light sources. At this point in time, it is fair to say: we hold this truth to be self-evident.
Let us put our best minds to design simple methods of clean (complete cycle) energy systems(renewable, distributed) around the simple Code: Return to the Ecological-Organic Garden. In this way we can produce abundant clean food and energy in order to regenerate human beings and Planet Earth, and achieve optimal sustainable development genuinely for humans and other species
in this Planet.
|robert garrison Comment left 13th September 2011 09:09:10|
brilliant.are there any opposing arguments at this time?simple and ellegant.
|kyle manjaro Comment left 16th September 2011 22:10:31|
An essential view in quantum mechanics (QM) is expressed in its tenets of non-separability upon which entanglement, for one, is founded.
QM is a non-local theory. NM (Newtonian Mechanics) is a "local" theory - and "local," to remind ourselves about the matter, doesn't refer to 'neighbourhood,' it refers to non-separability.
In this view, both points of view are true: NM is a special case of QM and QM is a special case of NM.
The "special case" is determined by the restriction or not (from one point of view) to "local" or "non-local", or, from the other 'classical' or recent historical point of view, an expansion from a "local" to a "non-local" point of view, which, in part, is the route we've already taken to QM.
Everything a part of the whole versus everything as the whole in parts. Seeing the 'thing' whole versus seeing the whole 'thing.' Wisdom versus analysis-synthesis as two distinct and differently inclusive ends of the same "telescope."
A key relationship is that the non-local is necessarily always to be found in and as an inherent part of the local, and the local is inherently always a restricted potential in the non-local.
IMHO! Just saying!
|F.Monti Comment left 17th September 2011 18:06:50|
For something similar look up Harold Aspden's work. His published papers and books on unified theory are freely available online.
|David Llewellyn Foster Comment left 17th November 2011 10:10:52|
When I searched for Z theory I could only find this paper by Pietro Giorgio Zerbo
Might not this alternative attribution of authorship prove to be a potential source of misidentification and therefore a cause of possible confusion about generic "Z Theory" - especially for those of us who are not theoretical physicists, and who may be struggling to comprehend the special significance of these arcane formulations? Guess I had better watch the Lane Davis video series!
|icarus Comment left 22nd November 2011 10:10:43|
Cute, compelling result that with fine structure constant being ratio of two velocities.
But I don't see where gravity comes into it ... what am I missing here. Is it a theory of everything or just a better description of the atomic interactions? (Formidable in itself of course.)
|Ted Kepple Comment left 22nd November 2011 16:04:04|
Very Impressive, but way over my head...
|Frank Znidarsic Comment left 26th November 2011 15:03:16|
My papers on Microsoft Academic
|Emanuel Comment left 31st January 2012 13:01:30|
wonderfull stuff !!! If this is correct the implications in science and tech are huge !!! The simplicity of the equations have a great impact on me
|Ryan Schroder Comment left 16th May 2012 10:10:41|
I find this theory quite insightful in that it offers an approach that I have not yet seen in conventional particle physics derivation. It is clear that the transition velocity is directly related to the energy level transition and does reflect the idea of the 100% efficiency photon frequency emission along with solving the Doppler problem that is ignored in the debroglie Model. However, this all being true, does not make it correct to say that quantum theory is not true in any way. Quantum theory allows us to look at particle systems from many different approaches and hold very general relationship truths and patterns that can not be denied. The essence of location does not exist in the particle world they way it does in the classical world so it is obvious that derivations such as the ones above can not be always applied. Throwing away quantum mechanics due to a special case observation under the condition of super conductivity does not at all seem to be a constructive approach for a scientist, and this is coming from a scientist who agrees with your theorem! That would be me. Yes this relation does hold true, but it can not replace quantum mechanics, it can only add a small piece to it, a piece that happens to be solved via unconventional methods with respect to quantum standard. Lastly, the part I do disagree with is that there is even the existence (in our universe at this time) of a gravitomagnetic force-field. Gravity does NOT depend on ferromagnetic properties nor the magnitude of any magnetic field anywhere in the universe. String theory hits the closest to the mark in that gravity gauge bosons are closed strings not bound to a membrane as the other bosons are.