ISIS Report 04/06/08
Ban GMOs Now
Dr. Mae-Wan Ho
warns that further indulgence in GMOs will severely damage our chances
of surviving the food crisis and global warming; organic agriculture and localised
food systems are the way forward
Invited lecture at conference on TRADITIONAL SEEDS OUR NATIONAL TREASURE AND
HERITAGE -Traditional and Organic Agriculture instead of GMO, 17 May 2008, Bewelder,
Announcing a new Report from ISIS. The most complete up-to-date summary of the dangers of GM agriculture in 52 pages. Buy Now
The Brave New World of GM Science
In 1994, I met some of the most remarkable leaders in the Third World: Tewolde
Berhan Gebre Egziabher (Institute of Sustainable Development, Addis Ababa,
Ethiopia), Martin Khor (Third World Network, Penang, Malaysia), and Vandana
Shiva (Navdanya, New Delhi, India), who persuaded me to look into genetically
modified organisms (GMOs), especially GM crops, which they rightly saw as
a special threat to small family farmers. The biotech industry was promising
miracle GM crops that would boost yield to feed the world, improve nutrition,
and clean up and protect the environment. Monsanto’s Flavr Savr tomato, the
first GM crop, had just been commercialised, though it turned out to be a
complete flop, and was withdrawn several years later..
The biotech industry’s aggressive campaign of disinformation and manipulation
of science did nothing to obscure the signs that the dream would soon turn
into nightmare; and I said so in my book first published in 1997/1998 
Genetic Engineering Dream or Nightmare,
the Brave New World of Bad Science and Big Business, which became an international
bestseller, translated into many languages, and recently reprinted with an
extended introduction to coincide with its translation into Indonesian. Everything
predicted in that book has happened. It also explained why the science behind
GM is obsolete; a story elaborated further in Living with the Fluid Genome
 published in 2003.
Genetic modification based on an obsolete theory and hence ineffective and
Genetic engineering of plants and animals began in the mid 1970s in the belief
that the genome (the totality of all the genetic material of a species) is
constant and static, and that the characteristics of organism are simply hardwired
in their genome. But geneticists soon discovered that the genome is remarkably
dynamic and ‘fluid’, and constantly in conversation with the environment.
This determines which genes are turned on, when, where, by how much and for
how long. Moreover, the genetic material itself could also be marked or changed
according to experience, and the influence passed on to the next generation.
The best thing about the human genome project is to finally explode the myth
of genetic determinism, revealing the layers of molecular complexity that
transmit, interpret and rewrite the genetic texts  (Life
Beyond the Central Dogma series, SiS 24). These processes are
precisely orchestrated and finely tuned by the organism as a whole, in a highly
coordinated molecular ‘dance of life’ that’s necessary for survival.
In contrast, genetic engineering in the laboratory is crude, imprecise and
invasive. The rogue genes inserted into a genome to make a GMO could land
anywhere; typically in a rearranged or defective form, scrambling and mutating
the host genome, and have the tendency to move or rearrange further once inserted,
basically because they do not know the dance of life. That’s ultimately why
genetic modification doesn’t work and is also dangerous.
Independent science against GM
In 1999, I co-founded the Institute of Science in Society (ISIS) with my
husband and long-time collaborator Peter Saunders, Professor of Mathematics
at King’s College, London, to work for science, society and sustainability
and to reclaim science for the public good. We are fortunate to have the support
of wonderful fellow scientists, especially Prof. Joe Cummins, who joined ISIS
from the start and continues to play the leading role in monitoring GM science.
(Joe Cummins has been honoured with the ISIS Distinguished Fellow Award 2008.)
In 2003, dozens of scientists from around the world joined us in ISIS to form
the Independent Science Panel, and produced a report, The
Case for A GM-Free Sustainable World , documenting all the problems and
hazards of GM crops as well as the successes and benefits of non-GM sustainable
agriculture. The report was republished within a year, translated into many
languages and widely circulated. We presented the report to the European Parliament
in 2004  (Keep GM Out of Europe,
SiS 24), with the help of Jill Evans MEP.
In 2007, we updated the ISP report with a dossier containing
more than 160 fully referenced articles from the archives of ISIS’ magazine
Science in Society, spelling out the scandals of serious hazards ignored,
scientific fraud, the regulatory sham and violation of farmers’ rights
 (GM Science Exposed: Hazards Ignored, Fraud, Regulatory Sham, Violation of Farmers
Rights). Duped farmers in India are driven to suicide in hundreds of
thousands. GM science is a crime against humanity.
In a scientific review paper  (GM Food Nightmare
Unfolding in the Regulatory Sham), we documented how
national and international regulators and advisory bodies such as the
European Food Safety Authority have been ignoring the precautionary principle
(which is accepted by the European Commission), abusing science, sidestepping
the law, and helping to promote GM technology in the face of evidence piling
up against the safety of GM food and feed.
We presented our dossier and review paper to the European Parliament
in June 2007, once again to press for a GM-Free Europe and a GM-free world,
thanks to the sponsorship of Polish MEP Mr. Janusz
Wojciechowski and his office. Our panel consisted of key scientists
from six countries including Poland,
and friends of independent scientists, including MEPs Dr. Caroline Lucas and
The case for a GM-free world has grown much stronger since 2004, not
only because so much more evidence has stacked up against GM crops; but especially
because accelerating global warming, the depletion of water and fossil fuels,
and the current food crisis make it that much more urgent to shift comprehensively
to sustainable food and energy systems as proposed in ISIS/TWN’s energy
report Which Energy? . There is neither the time nor resources to waste on GM.
We’d had 30 years of GMOs and more than enough damage done, as
detailed in the ISP Report , in our GM Science dossier , and more recent
evidence has been piling up.
Thirty years of GMOs are more than enough
· No increase in yields; on the contrary GM soya
decreased yields by up to 20 percent compared with non-GM soya , and up
to 100 percent failures of Bt cotton have been recorded in India . New
studies confirmed these findings. Research from the University of Kansas found
a 10 percent yield drag for Roundup Ready soya  that required extra manganese
applied to the soil to make up the yield deficit. A team of scientists from
the USDA and the University of Georgia found growing GM cotton in the US could
result in a drop in income by up to 40 percent [10, 11] (Transgenic Cotton
Offers No Advantage, SiS 38)
· No reduction in pesticides use; on the contrary,
USDA data showed that GM crops increase pesticide use by 50 million pounds
from 1996 to 2003 in the United States . New data paint an even grimmer
picture: the use of glyphosate on major crops went up more than 15-fold between
1994 and 2005, along with increases in other herbicides  in order to cope
with rising glyphosate resistant superweeds . Roundup tolerant canola volunteers
are top among the worries of Canadian farmers [13, 14] (Study Based on Farmers’
Experience Exposes Risks of GM Crops, SiS 38)
· Roundup herbicide is lethal to frogs and toxic to human
placental and embryonic cells . Roundup is used in more than 80
percent of all GM crops planted in the world
· GM crops harm wildlife, as revealed by UK’s farm
scale evaluations , and more recently in a study led by Loyola University,
Chicago, Illinois in the United Stated, which found that wastes from Bt corn
impaired the growth of a common aquatic insect [15, 16] (Bt Crops Threaten
Aquatic Ecosystems, SiS 36)
· Bt resistance pests and Roundup tolerant superweeds render
the two major GM crop traits practically useless . A recent review concluded that  “evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds are a major risk
for the continued success of glyphosate and transgenic glyphosate-resistant
crops.” And the evolution of Bt resistant bollworms worldwide have now been
confirmed and documented in more than a dozen fields in Mississippi and Arkansas
between 2003 and 2006 
· Vast areas of forests, pampas and cerrados lost to GM
soya in Latin America, 15 m hectares in Argentina alone ; and this
has worsened considerably with the demand for biofuels (see later)
· Epidemic of suicides in the cotton belt of India
involving 100 000 farmers between 1993-2003, and a further 16 000 farmers
a year have died since Bt cotton was introduced 
· Transgene contamination unavoidable, scientists
find GM pollination of non-GM crops and wild relatives 21 kilometres away
· GM food and feed linked to deaths and sicknesses
both in the fields in India and in lab tests around the world (more below)
GM food and feed inherently hazardous to health 
Here are some highlights from our GM Science dossier  on the hazards of
GM food and feed. Dr. Irina Ermakova of the Russian Academy of Sciences showed
how GM soya made female rats give birth to severely stunted and abnormal litters,
with more than half dying in three weeks, and those remaining are sterile. Hundreds
of villagers and cotton handlers in India suffer allergy-like symptoms, thousands
of sheep died after grazing on the Bt cotton residues, goat and cows as well
were reported in 2007 and 2008  (Mass Protests against GM Crops
in India , SiS 38). A harmless bean protein transferred to pea when
tested on mice cause severe inflammation in the lungs and provoked generalised
food sensitivities. Dozens of villagers in the south of the Philippines fell
ill when neighbouring GM maize fields came into flower in 2003, five have died
and some remain ill to this day. A dozen cows died having eaten GM maize in
Hesse Germany and more in the herd had to be slaughtered from mysterious illnesses.
Arpad Pusztai and his colleagues in the UK found GM potatoes with snowdrop lectin
damaged every organ system of young rats; the stomach lining grew twice as thick
as controls. Chickens fed GM maize Chardon LL were twice as likely to die as
controls. And finally, GM maize Mon 863 was claimed to be as safe as non-GM
maize by the company, and accepted as such by European Food Safety Authority.
But independent scientists of CriiGen in France re-analysed the data and found
signs of liver and kidney toxicity.
Different animals and human beings exposed to a variety of transgenic crops
with different traits either fall ill or die. The evidence compels us to consider
the possibility that the hazards of GMOs may be inherent to the technology,
as I suggested more than ten years ago .
Litter from female rat fed GM soya
(bottom) compared with control
(from Dr. Erina Ermakova)
Table 1. Summary of Exposure of Animals and
Human Beings to GMOs
||Stunting, death, sterility
||Death, liver toxicity
||Lung Inflammation, General food sensitivity
||Liver, pancreas and testis affected
||Illnesses and death
||Liver and kidney toxicity
||Death and illnesses
||Damage in every organ system. Stomach lining twice as thick as controls
||Gut lining thickened
||Holes in the stomach
US courts rule GM crop field-tests and releases illegal
The message that GM crops are unsafe appears to have got through to
the judiciary system in the United States. There have been three court rulings against the US Department of
Agriculture (USDA) for failing to carry out proper environmental impact assessment,
making the original releases illegal  (Approval of GM
Crops Illegal, US Federal Courts Rule, SiS 34).
These are the first rulings against GMOs in the top producing country in the
world, which has been also promoting GMOs aggressively.
The first case was on drug-producing GM crops in Hawaii. The court said that the USDA violated
the Endangered Species Act as well as the National Environmental Policy Act.
The second court case not only ruled GM herbicide-tolerant
creeping bentgrass illegal, but also that the USDA must halt approval of all
new field trials until more rigorous environmental reviews are conducted.
third decision was passed on Monsanto’s Roundup Ready alfalfa for having been
commercial released illegally without an Environment Impact Statement.
An avalanche of bans and rulings strikes GM crops
There have been numerous bans and restrictions imposed on GM crops
in recent years, which say a lot about the inadequacies of regulatory regimes
worldwide (see Box 1).
Rulings and bans on GMOs between May 2007
and May 2008
· US GM alfalfa ban made permanent 
· US Federal Court of Appeals ruled against GM bentgrass
· Four counties in California have bans or moratorium
on GM crops and the first state bill to protect Californian farmers against
lawsuits that intimate and harass them when their field are contaminated
passed through the Agriculture committee in January 2008 
· Montville USA became the first
town outside California to ban GM crops 
· South Australia extended its GM ban 
· Romania joined EU members in banning GM crop Mon 810
, the others are France, Hungary, Italy, Austria, Greece, and Poland
· 13 out of 20 counties in Croatia have declared
themselves GM-Free 
· Greece renewed its ban on GM maize seeds 
· Germany imposed much stricter regulations on GM maize
· Scotland backs GM ban in Europe 
· France banned GM maize Mon 810 in February 2008 and passed GMO law
in April to guard against contamination by GMO, making it compulsory for
farmers to “respect agricultural structures, local ecosystems and non-GMO
commercial and production industries” [32, 33]
· Wales is set to ban GM crops 
· More than 230 regions, over 4
000 municipalities and other local entities and
tens of thousands of farmers and food producers in Europe have declared
themselves GMO-free so far 
EU Commissioner for the Environment Stavros Dimas has expressed
serious reservations concerning GMOs  (GM-Free
Europe Beginning?, SiS 36), which is unprecedented in the history
of the European Commission. On 7 May 2008, the European Commission delayed
a decision on allowing farmers to grow more GM crops, and asked European Food
Safety Authority to reconsider its previous review, which it had admitted
was inadequate, as it was unable to take indirect and long term impacts into
No case for GM crops, small scale organic farming is the way ahead
Meanwhile, on 15 April 2008, 400 scientists of the International Assessment
of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD) released its
2 500-page report  that took 4 years to complete. It is a thorough examination
of global agriculture on a scale comparable to the Intergovernment Panel on
Climate Change. Its conclusions are remarkably similar to our own report Food Futures Now *Organic *Sustainable
*Fossil Fuel Free  launched in UK Parliament a week later.
The IAASTD calls for a fundamental change in farming practice
to counteract soaring food prices, hunger, poverty and environmental disasters,
it says GM crops are controversial with respect to safety for health and the
environment, and will not play a substantial role in addressing climate change,
loss of biodiversity, hunger and poverty. Small scale farmers and agro-ecological
methods are the way forward, and indigenous and local knowledge are as important
as formal scientific knowledge. It warns that growing crops for biofuels could
worsen food shortages and price rises  (“GM-Free Organic Agriculture
to Feed the World”, SiS 38)
The Director is Prof. Robert Watson, Chief Scientist at
the World Bank and also UK’s Department for the Environment, Food and Rural
Affairs. He says, “Are transgenics the simple answer to hunger and poverty?
I would argue no.” And “Small organic farms are the way ahead” (BBC Radio
4 Today Programme, 19 April 2008).
Our Food Futures Now report goes a step
further. We argue that only organic agriculture can truly feed the
world. More than that, organic agriculture and localised food and energy systems
can potentially compensate for all ghg emissions due to human activities and
free us from fossil fuels, and we need to implement this urgently.
The UN has declared 2008 the year of the Global Food Crisis, and it has been
the top news story everyday for months now as the crisis deepens. Food prices
increased by an average of 40 percent last year; a string of food riots and
protests spread around the world including the UK, and more than 25 000 farmers
killed themselves in India.
Most commentators agree that the immediate cause of the food
crisis is the divestment of food grains into producing biofuels. BusinessWeek
identified Monsanto as a “prime beneficiary”. Its stock correlated closely
with the price of oil (better than ExxonMobile), and hardly correlated with
the price of corn, basically because no one will eat its GM corn. Nevertheless
the pro-GM lobby are out in force, using the food crisis to promote GM crops.
I can only repeat what I said earlier. GM crops are one big failed
experiment based on an obsolete scientific theory, and this failure has been
evident since 2004  (Puncturing the GM Myths, SiS
22). Apart from yielding less and requiring more pesticides, anecdotal evidence
since 2005 from farmers around the world indicates that GM crops also require
more water . Industrial Green Revolution agriculture is now generally
acknowledged to be a major driver of climate change as well as being vulnerable
to climate change because of its heavy dependence on fossil energies and water,
and its susceptibility to pests, diseases and climate extremes [38, 39, 43].
GM crops have all the worst features of industrial Green Revolution varieties
exaggerated, including susceptibility to diseases and climate extremes on
account of genetic uniformity  ] (Beware the New "Doubly
Green Revolution", SiS 37); and not least, there are outstanding
safety concerns (as described above). Growing GM crops for biofuels does not
make them safe, as they will contaminate our food crops all the same.
Any further indulgence in GMOs will surely damage our chances of surviving
global warming. We must get on with the urgent business of building organic,
sustainable food and energy systems right now.
- Ho MW. Genetic Engineering Dream of Nightmare? The Brave New World
of Bad Science and Big Business, Third World Network, Gateway Books,
MacMillan, Continuum, Penang, Malaysia, Bath, UK, Dublin, Ireland, New York,
USA, 1998, 1999, 2007 (reprint with extended Introduction).
- Ho MW. Living with the Fluid Genome, ISIS & TWN, London and
- Ho MW. Life beyond the Central Dogma series, Science
in Society 24, 4-13, 2004.
- Ho MW and Lim LC. The Case for a GM-Free Sustainable World, Independent
Science Panel Report, Institute of Science in Society and Third World Network,
London and Penang, 2003; republished GM-Free, Exposing the Hazards of
Biotechnology to Ensure the Integrity of Our Food Supply, Vitalhealth
Publishing, Ridgefield, Ct., 2004 (both available from ISIS online bookstore
- Lim LC. Keep GM out of Europe! Science
in Society 24, 26-27, 2004.
- GM Science Exposed: Hazards Ignored, Fraud, Regulatory Sham and Violation
of Farmers’ Rights, ISIS CD book, 2007.
- Ho MW, Cummins J and Saunders PT. GM food nightmare unfolding
in the regulatory sham. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 2007,
Disease 2007, 19, 66-77.
- Ho MW, Bunyard P, Saunders PT, Bravo E and Gala R. Which Energy?
2006 ISIS Energy Report, Institute of Science in Society, London, 2006.
- Gordon B. Better Crops 2007, 91, 12-14.
- Jost P, Shurley D, Culpepper S, Roberts P, Nichols R, Reeves J and Anthony
S. Economic Comparison of transgenic and montransgenic cotton production
systems in Georgia. Agronomy Journal 2008, 100, 42-51. (doi:10.2134/agronj2006.0259)
- Ho MW and Saunders PT. Transgenic cotton offers no advantage, Science
in Society 38 (in press).
- Who benefits from gm crops? The rise in pesticide use, executive
summary, Friends of the Earth International, Amsterdam, January 2008.
- Mauro IJ and McLachlan SM. Farmer knowledge and risk analysis: postrelease
evalulation of herbicide-tolerant canola in Western Canada. Risk Analysis
2008, 28, DOI:10.1111/j.1539-6924.200801027.x
- Ho MW. Study based on farmers’ experience exposes risks of GM crops. Science
in Society 38 (in press).
- Rosi-Marxhall EJ, Tank JL, Royer TV, Whiles MR, Evans-White M, Chamgers
C, Griffiths NA, Pokelsek J and Stephen ML. Toxins in transgenic crop byproducts
may affect headwater stream ecosystems. PNAS 2007, 104, 16204-8.
- Ho MW. Bt crops threaten aquatic ecosystems. Science
in Society 36, 49, 2007.
- Powles, SB. Evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds around the world: lessons
to be learnt. Pest Management Science 2008, 64, 360-5.
- “First documented case of pest resistance to biotech cotton” Science
Daily, 8 February 2008, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080207140803.htm
- Van de Water PK, Watrud LS, Lee EH, Burdick C and King GA. Long-distance
GM pollen movement of creeping bentgrass using modelled wind trajectory
analysis. Ecological Applications 2007, 17, 1244-56.
- Kurunganti K. Mass protests against GM crops in India. Science
in Society 38 (in press).
- Cummins J and Ho MW. Approval of GM crops illegal, US federal courts rule.
Science in Society 34,
- ““An American court bans genetically modified alfalfa – How sill Ottawa
react:, CNW TELBEC, 4 May 2007, http://www.cnw.ca/fr/releases/archive/May2007/04/c5427.html
- “D.C. Circuit Court says “no” to Scotts and Monsanto on biotech grasses”,
Center for Food Safety Press Release, 19 March 2008, http://www.centerforfoodsafety.org/bentgrassPR3_19_08.cfm
- History of AB 541, Californians for GE-Free Agriculture, http://www.calgefree.org/speakout.html
- “Montville: first U.S. town outside of California to ban genetically engineered
crops”, Food for Maines Future, 29 March 2008, http://foodformainesfuture.org/blog/?p=30
- “GM crop ban extended indefinitely in SA”, The Land, 18 April 2008, http://theland.farmonline.com.au/news/nationalrural/grains-and-cropping/general/gm-crop-ban-extended-indefinitely-in-sa/85116.aspx
- “Romania joins EU members in GM crop ban”, Matt Williams, The Parliament.com,
28 March 2008, http://www.theparliament.com/policy-focus/agriculture/agriculture-article0/newsarticle/romania-joins-eunbspmembers-in-gm-crop-ban/511/
- Ho MW, Saunders PT and Jost M. Croatia to be organic and GM-Free. Science
in Society 38 (in press)
- “Greenpeace applauds Greek ban on GMO corn”, ANA-MPA, 7 May 2008, http://www.ana.gr/anaweb/user/showplain?maindoc=3869485&maindocimg=1151649&service=8
- “Germany tightens restrictions on genetically modified corn”, Der Spiegel,
9 May 2007, http://www.spiegel.de/international/business/0,1518,481952,00.html
- “Government to back bid to ban GM crops in Europe”, Sunday Herald,
25 November 2007, http://www.robedwards.com/2007/11/government-to-b.html
- “French state body upholds decision of GM crop ban”, Reuters.com, 21 March
- “French Senate approves GMO law”, Reuters, 18 April 2008, http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/48044/story.htm
- “Wales set to ban GM crops”, Steve Dube, icWales.co.uk, 18 March 2008,
- GMO-free regions, biodiversity and rural development, GENET, May 2008,
- Ho MW. GM-free Europe beginning? Science
in Society 36, 51, 2007.
- “EU food agency under fire as commission debates GMOs”, Friends of the
Earth Europe, Greenpeace Press Release, 7 May 2008,
- International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science & Technology
(IAASTD) Synthesis Report 25 November 2007, http://www.agassessment.org/docs/Synthesis_Report_261107_text.pdf
- Ho MW, Burcher S, Lim LC, et al. Food Futures Now, Organic, Sustainable,
Fossil Fuel Free, ISIS and TWN, London, 2008.
- Ho MW. GM-free organic agriculture to feed the world. International panel
of 400 Agricultural scientists call for fundamental change in farming practice.
Science in Society 38 (in press).
- “Puncturing the GM myths”, Interview of Dr. Mae-Wan Ho by Anastasia Stephens
of the Evening Standard, Science
in Society 22, 23-25, 2004.
- “Farmers ask why GM crops worse in drought”, Network of Concerned Farmers,
30 June 2005, http://www.non-gm-farmers.com/news_details.asp?ID=2253
- Manifesto on Climate Change and the Future of Food Security, The International
Commission on the Future of Food and Agriculture, Florence, Italy, 2008.
- Ho MW. Beware the new “doubly green revolution”. Science
in Society 37, 26-29, 2008.