Science in Society Archive

Open Letter to British Food Journal Editor & Editorial Board

Wormy Corn Paper Must be Retracted

We, the undersigned, are writing to request the Editor and the Editorial Board of the British Food Journal (BFJ) to retract the published article “Agronomic and consumer considerations for Bt and conventional sweet corn” [1] and to withdraw its “Award for Excellence for Most Outstanding Paper in 2004”. This paper, purporting to show that consumers prefer to buy genetically modified (GM) Bt sweet corn over conventional sweet corn, is highly misleading, if not a “flagrant fraud”, as it is based on manipulations of the shoppers’ preference, not reported in the paper. When evidence of the manipulations emerged, one of the authors, an employee of the Canadian Government, attempted to suppress the evidence, even resorting to threatening legal action in the UK and Ireland. We summarize the sequence of events for your benefit.

The BFJ published the paper in 2003 [1], and subsequently gave it the “Award for Excellence for the Most Outstanding Paper in 2004”. The authors claimed to have shown that consumers, when given a choice between GM (Bt) and non-GM sweet corn, preferred to buy the GM-corn by a factor of 3 to 2. But it turned out that the paper was seriously flawed [2] (see Biotech Canada SLAPP Scandal, SiS 36).

Toronto Star journalist Stuart Laidlaw reported on the ‘experiment’ in his book, Secret Ingredients: The Brave New World of Industrial Farming, (McClelland & Stewart, 2003). The book included a photograph of a sign above the regular sweet corn saying: “Would You Eat Wormy Sweet Corn?” while the corresponding sign over the GM-corn said: “Here’s What Went into Producing Quality Sweet Corn.”  The contrast between “Wormy” and “Quality” was highlighted on the sign by the number of times the regular corn had been sprayed with insecticides and fungicide. This and other blatant attempts to bias the consumers’ choice [3] were not reported in the BFJ paper.

A leading researcher into scientific ethics, Dr. Richard Jennings at Cambridge University in the UK, told the New Scientist [4] that if that is the case, “It is grounds for the journal to retract the article.”

Prof. Joe Cummins, Professor Emeritus of Plant Genetics at University of Western Ontario, wrote a letter to the Editor of the BFJ on 30 May 2006, requesting that the paper and the Award for Excellence both be withdrawn as “ the experiment and its controls do not appear to have been reported either fully or honestly.”

The Editor, Dr. Chris Griffith, Head of the Food Research and Consultancy Unit at the University of Wales, Cardiff, failed to retract the paper, sidestepping the objection with a statement in an “Editor’s note” [5] that: “A common misconception is that science and research are about facts.” Prof. Cummins’ letter was also published in the same “Editor’s note”, followed by a lengthy reply from the senior author, Dr. Doug Powell, Associate Professor of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology at Kansas State University, Manhattan, in which he tried to justify the research. He admitted that the “wormy corn” sign had been present on 30 August 2000 (the day the sales experiment started), and said it was “changed” (not removed) a week later. But he simply dismissed the charge that this amounted to influencing consumer preference.

The paper’s second author, Shane Morris, replied on his website GMOIreland [6], claiming he “never saw any such misleading “signs””, despite the photographic evidence obtained by Laidlaw. Instead he produced his own photographs [7], which he said confirm there were no such misleading signs during the data collection period.

Morris is a biotech lobbyist who routinely attacks critics of GM crops on his website, and is also a paid agent of the Canadian Government, a Senior Consumer Analyst at the Consumer Analysis Section of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. And while holding that position, Morris resorted to threats of legal action, a notorious measure commonly referred to as SLAPP – Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation [2] - forcing a temporary shutdown of the GM Watch website (which first drew attention to Laidlaw’s report).

Meanwhile, new evidence has emerged confirming that the “wormy corn” sign was indeed present during a substantial part of, if not the entire data collection period, 30 August - 6 October 2000. Tim Lambert, computer scientist at the University of New South Wales in Australia, noticed a small placard with writing placed over the regular corn in Morris’s photographs, but the resolution was too low to read. By blowing up the photographs and aligning the placard with the original photograph of the wormy sign, Lambert found a match in the writing [8]; thereby providing proof that the telltale sign, which Morris claimed never to have seen, was present in Morris’s own photographs.

Dr. Jennings has since spoken to Private Eye [9], calling the BFJ paper “a flagrant fraud”, and charging the authors with “a sin of omission by failing to divulge information which quite clearly should have been disclosed.” But as Private Eye commented [10], “if the researchers had disclosed the wormy corn labels, would any respected scientific journal have published it?”

In November 2007, the Rt  Hon. Michael Meacher MP tabled an Early Day Motion in the UK Parliament on Scientific Research into GM Crops [11], which “regrets the continuing attempts to silence or misrepresent scientists whose research indicates possible human health problems from GM crops”, “deplores the continuing efforts of an employee of the Canadian Government to close down websites in the UK and Republic of Ireland,” and calls for “journal editors to withdraw papers they have published which subsequently turn out to be grossly misleading or even fraudulent.” This has been signed by 26 MPs from different political parties.

Professor Cummins wrote to the BFJ Editor again on 26 November 2007, drawing attention to the new evidence, and asking that “accusations as serious as mendacity, falsification and fraud” not be swept aside or barred from discussion. He wrote again on 6 December and 20 December 2007, but Dr. Griffith has failed to reply.

 This disgraceful incident has brought science and the BFJ into disrepute, and we urge the Editorial Board to do what it can to redeem itself by retracting both the paper and its award, thus sending a clear signal to the scientific community and the public that you are not compromising the traditional, accepted standards of good science or of truthful journalism.


  1. Powell DA, Blaine K, Morris S and Wilson  J. Agronomic and consumer considerations for Bt and conventional sweet-corn. British Food Journal 2003, 105 (10), 700-713.
  2. Cummins J. Biotech Canada SLAPP scandal. Science in Society 36, 6-7, 2007.
  3. “The GM propaganda lab”, GM Watch,
  4. “Controversy over claims in favour of GM corn”, The New Scientist, 27 May 2007,
  5. Griffith C.  Editor's note, British Food Journal 2006, 108(8).
  6. “More Spin, FAKE information and Lies!!!” Shane Morris, GMOIreland, 20 March 2006,
  7. “Poor old Johnny”, Shane Morris, GMOIreland, 21 March 2006,
  8. “Would you eat wormy sweet corn?”, Tim Lambert, 7 September 2007, Deltoid,
  9.  “Corn fakes”, Private Eye No. 1194, 28 September – 11 October 2007.
  10. Fraude, 27 September 2007,
  11. Early Day Motion, EDM 425, Scientific Research into GM Crops, 28 November,


Prof. Joe Cummins (, tel: 1-519 681 5477)
Emeritus Professor, University of Western Ontario, Canada

Dr. Mae-Wan Ho (, tel: 44-(0)20-7272-5636)
Roster of Experts, Cartagena Protocol for Biosafety, and Director, Institute of Science in Society,, UK

Prof. Peter Saunders (, tel: (0)20-7272-5636)
Emeritus Professor of Applied Mathematics, King’s College, London University, UK

Dr. Richard C Jennings
Lectures on Ethics in Science, University of Cambridge, UK

Prof. Andy Stirling
Director of Science, SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK

Prof. Brian Wynne
Associate Director, ESRC Centre for Economic and Social Aspects of Genomics, CESAGen, Lancaster University, UK

Prof. Erik Millstone
SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK

Dr. Terje Traavik
Scientific Director, GenØk-Center for Biosafety
Professor of Gene Ecology, School of Medicine, University of Tromso, Norway

Rt. Hon. Michael Meacher
Member of Parliament, UK

Alan Simpson
Member of Parliament, UK

Prof. Gilles-Eric Séralini
Molecular biologist, University of Caen France, and president of the Scientific Council for Independent Research on Genetic Engineering (CRIIGEN),, France

Dr. David Schubert
Professor, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, Ca, USA

Dr. Michael Antoniou
Reader in Molecular Genetics, King's College London, UK

Dr. Rod MacRae
Food policy consultant and Assistant Professor, Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Toronto, Canada

Dr. Carlo Leifert
Res Dev Professor of Ecological Agriculture, University of Newcastle, UK

Dr. David Miller
Professor of Sociology, Department of Geography and Sociology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland

Dr. James Wilsdon
Head of Science and Innovation, Demos, London

Dr. Stuart A. Newman
Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA

Prof. Iain Boal
University of California, Berkeley, Ca, USA

Dr. John Fagan
Chief Scientific Officer and molecular biologist, Genetic ID, USA, Germany, Japan

Dr. Philip L Bereano
Professor Emeritus, Department of Technical Communication, University of Washington, Seattle, USA

Dr. Pietro Perrino
Research Manager, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, at the Institute of Plant Genetics (ex Germplasm Institute), Bari, Italy

Prof. Masaharu Kawata
Yokkaichi University, Mie-Prefecture, Japan

Dr. Tom Wakeford
Director of Public Engagement, University of Newcastle, and SABL Visiting Fellow at the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), UK

Dr. Werner Kraus Jr.
Dept. of Automation and Systems Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil

Dr. Christophe Boëte
Research Scientist in Evolutionary Parasitology, University Pierre & Marie Curie, Paris, France

Dr. Alexandra Plows
Research Associate, ESRC Centre for the Economic and Social Aspects of Genomics, CESAGen, University of Cardiff, UK

Dr. Hector Valenzuela
Professor and Vegetable Crops Extension Specialist, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA

Prof. E R Orskov
IFRU, Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, Scotland

Dr. Arpad Pusztai FRSE
Biotechnology Section Graduate Division at the St Stephan University School of Ecology, Hungary, and Consultant, GenØk-Center for Biosafety, Norway

Dr. Susan Bardocz
Professor of Nutrition at University Debrecen, Hungary, and Consultant, GenØk-Center for Biosafety, Norway

Dr. Malcolm Hooper
Emeritus Professor of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Sunderland, UK

Dr. Paul Nightingale
SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK

Profa. Dra. Uiara Montedo
Departamento de Engenharia de Produção, Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

Dr. Stuart Parkinson
Executive Director, Scientists for Global Responsibility (SGR), UK

Dr. Jonathan R. Latham
Editor, The Bioscience Resource Project, Ithaca, NY, USA

John Verrall MRPS, DBA
Member, Food Ethics Council, Brighton, UK

Dr. Helen Wallace
Director, GeneWatch UK, Buxton, UK

Dr. Brian John
GM-Free Cymru,, Wales

Dr. Michael W. Fox
Veterinarian and syndicated columnist, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Hira Jhamtani
Vice Chair, Bali Organic Association, Bali, Indonesia

Dr. Neil Carman
Sierra Club Genetic Engineering Committee, Austin, Texas, USA


23 January 2007 to British Food Journal Editor and Editorial Board Members

Professor Chris Griffith
Editor of British Food Journal
Head, Food Research and Consultancy Unit, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff

Dr Louise Fielding
School of Applied Sciences,University of Wales Institute,Cardiff, UK

Dr Michael Bourlakis 
Senior Lecturer and Director of Postgraduate studies

Dr Roger L. Cook
National Manager (Microbiology) Programme Development Group
Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry Food Assurance Authority

Leo-Paul Dana
Associate Professor in Marketing, Canterbury University

Dr Ruth Fairchild
Senior Lecturer Cardiff School of Health Sciences University of Wales Institute Cardiff, UK 

Susan Gregory  
Research Unit in Health, Behaviour and Change, University of Edinburgh. Medical School

Prof, Christina Fjellstrom 
Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden

Professor dr Lynn Jayne Frewer
Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group  Wageningen,Netherland

Cathryn Hart
Senior Lecturer in Retailing and Operations Management Programme Director of Retail Management Marketing and Retailing Research

Professor Adam Lindgreen
Marketing and Business Strategy University of Hull

Ingela Marklinder, Ph. D.
Department of Domestic. Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden

Prof. Alberto Mattiacci
Università degli Studi di Siena

Prof. Bevan Moseley
Consultant Blandford House, 2 Hamilton Road, Reading United Kingdom

Terry Robinson 
Reader in Teesside Business School

Samim Saner
General Manager Kalite Sistem Laboratories Group Kalamis M.Nurettin Selcuk cad.No.28 Istanbul 81030 Turkey

Claire Seaman 
Senior Lecturer, School of Business and Enterprise Management Team Queen Margaret University

Dr Andrew Smith Associate Professor in Marketing

Professor Claudio Vignali
Leslie Silver International Faculty Tourism, Hospitality & Events School

Professor Verner Wheelock
Verner Wheelock Associates,Broughton Hall Business Park,
Skipton, UK 

Article first published 23/01/08

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