Science in Society Archive

Important Books & Reports

Banishing Glyphosate

Banishing Glyphosate - Dr. Eva Sirinathsinghji, Dr. Mae-Wan Ho and others

Glyphosate/Roundup, falsely claimed by Monsanto to be safe and harmless, has become the world’s most widely and pervasively used herbicide; it has brought rising tides of birth defects, cancers, fatal kidney disease, sterility, and dozens of other illnesses - more

Ban GMOs Now

Ban GMOs Now - Dr. Mae-Wan Ho and Dr. Eva Sirinathsinghji

Health & environmental hazards especially in the light of the new genetics - more

Living Rainbow H2O

Living Rainbow H2O - Dr. Mae-Wan Ho

A unique synthesis of the latest findings in the quantum physics and chemistry of water that tells you why water is the “means, medium, and message of life” - more

The Rainbow and the Worm - the Physics of Organisms

The Rainbow and the Worm - the Physics of Organisms - Dr. Mae-Wan Ho

“Probably the Most Important Book for the Coming Scientific Revolution” - more

Comment on: Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status for Monsanto MON 87411 Corn Rootworm Protected and Glyphosate-Tolerant Maize

Submission to APHIS, US Department of Agriculture, Docket ID: APHIS-2014-0007S [1]

Dr Eva Sirinathsinghji for Institute of Science in Society

MON87411 maize is a new crop genetically modified to contain the Cry3Bb1 Bt insecticidal toxin against Western corn rootworm, a glyphosate tolerance gene, as well as a dsRNA molecule that utilises the RNA interference pathway designed to target the DvSnf7 gene in order to kill the Western corn rootworm. DvSnfy7 is the corn rootworm’s version of the gene coding for Snf7, a protein that functions as part of the ESCRT complex involved in endosomal sorting. It is well-conserved from yeast to human and several studies have revealed additional functional roles in biological processes such as viral budding, cytokinesis and regulation of gene transcription [2]. Deregulation of MON87411 maize without adequate safety testing presents both well-documented and unpredictable risk to both consumers and the environment.

RNA interference is complex phenomenon with known toxicity risks

A critical concern regarding this crop is the inclusion of RNA interference (RNAi) technology and the assumption-based reasoning used to discount the well-known risks associated with it. RNAi technologies are in their infancy, as is the scientific field underlying it. The incomplete understanding of this field has hampered their translation into successful therapeutic strategies, with many mammalian studies highlighting the potential lethality and/or toxicity of RNA- based treatments (see [3] New GM Nightmares with RNA, SiS 58) and [4] RNA Interference “Complex and Flexible”, SiS 59) and [5]).

RNAi is a natural epigenetic process highly conserved in plants, vertebrates as well as invertebrates in which small non-coding dsRNAs regulate gene expression in a sequence-specific manner, normally to down-regulate individual genes, or set of genes. DsRNA includes siRNA (short-inhibitory RNA), miRNA (microRNA), shRNA (short hairpin RNA) etc., all intermediates leading to RNA interference of protein synthesis. The underlying mechanism of RNAi gene regulation is thought to rely on the sequence complementarity of the small RNA molecules to its target mRNA of a given gene, resulting either in degradation of the target RNA, or translational repression of the protein product which is often the case when there is incomplete complementarity to the target sequence.  Typically, dsRNA originates from a long RNA molecule with stretches of complementary base sequences that base pair to form a stem ending in a non-base-paired loop. This stem-loop structure is then processed into a shorter dsRNA, and one strand, the guide strand does the job of interfering. It binds to an mRNA (messenger RNA) molecule in the cytoplasm by complementary base-pairing to prevent the mRNA from being translated into protein. Alternatively, the guide strand targets and chemically modifies DNA sequences in the nucleus by adding methyl groups to the DNA, and cause modification of histone proteins associated with the DNA.  The nuclear pathway is known to inhibit transcription and to seed the formation of heterochromatin, an inactive, non-transcribed region of chromosomes.  DsRNAs can target and regulate hundreds or even thousands of genes, with synthetics RNAs having an estimated 10 % error rate when analysed by bioinformatics techniques [6], despite being designed to target one specific gene.

Consequently, without systematic testing of the dsRNA sequence in MON87411 on non-target organisms, including insects and mammals, it is impossible to claim the crop is safe. Sequence-independent effects are also common sources of toxicity for oligonucleotide therapeutics, which is length-dependent with increasing toxicity at lengths about 30 nucleotides, well below the length of the dsRNA DvSnf7 (240 nucleotides long) contained in MON87411 [7,8]. Transgenerational tests are also critical, considering the transgenerational inheritance of RNAi effects being observed in many biological systems [9,10,11] (see [3]).

Plant dsRNA is stable, detected in blood and organs of humans and animals

One of the most important claims made by Monsanto with regards to the safety of consuming exogenous dsRNA from MON87411, is the assumption that RNA is unable to survive the digestive system of mammals and is therefore inert, making any of the above described risks negligible. However, accumulating evidence suggests this is not the case. A recent publication [12] showed that rice miRNAs were present in the plasma of humans as well as 5 other mammalian species (calf, horse, sheep, mouse and rat) following consumption. Global analysis of plant RNAs revealed 30 different miRNAs present in blood sera, showing that the RNA survives digestion. Rice miRNA was also detected in various organs including the heart, liver, spleen, brain, kidney, lungs, small intestines and stomach of mice feed a rice-rich diet. Furthermore, these mRNAs had a functional role in the mice, with one particularly abundant RNA (mi168a) going on to regulate a liver gene involved in metabolism (LDLRAP1). This finding was further corroborated by the fact that blocking the rice mi168a removed its effect on the liver LDLRAP1 expression, providing evidence of a causative role of the plant RNA on the mammalian gene expression changes (see [13] How Food Affects Genes, SiS 53).

Other studies have since confirmed the presence of exogenous RNA from food in humans, including rice, corn, barley, tomato, soybean, wheat, cabbage, grapes and carrot [14]. Further, miRNAs have been discovered in human plasma and other body fluids including human breast milk, which is stable in conditions commonly assumed to degrade RNA including freeze thaw cycle, high and low acid conditions (as would be found in the stomach), boiling, and extended storage, all of which destroys synthetic RNA [15-18].

Monsanto’s petition attempts to disprove Zhang’s work, citing a study led by Witwer [19], which failed to detect plant miRNA. This study used two animals only, compared to that of Zhang’s team [12], which included 10 women, 11 men (plus pooled serum from 10 extra individuals) along with 6 animals of 5 additional mammalian species. Further, the Witwer study only looked at 7 plant miRNAs, whereas Zhang’s team looked at global RNA levels. Also cited was a study led by Snow [20] which again failed to detect plant RNA in mammals after assessing only a few miRNAs. Further, a communication from Monsanto published in Nature Biotechnology [21] claims to have conducted their own experiments and failed to detect exogenous rice RNA in mice. However, failure to detect anything is not proof that the exogenous RNA is not present in the mouse. The easiest way to find nothing is to do the experiment badly. As pointed out by Zhang in response to the publication [22], their detection of plant miRNA even in rice, the positive control, was well below the expected levels, and hence minimises the chance for detecting anything in the mice. The technical issues surrounding their quantitative PCR experiments, including lack of appropriate controls and absence of raw data make it impossible to judge the quality of the experiment and the findings. Other technical issues are explained in detail in [22].

A crop destined for widespread consumption surely demands much more thorough investigation than the perfunctory and limited work performed of dubious quality that could hardly be expected to find anything.

 In fact, any evidence suggesting that exogenous RNAs are able to survive digestion and go on to target our genes is sufficient reason to reject approval of this crop until complete understanding of its effects are measured. It is simply impossible to predict the effects of extraneous dsRNA in plants on human health and the environment. The fact that we eat RNA in plants does not equate to eating RNA from corn rootworm, expressed under an artificial promoter, out of its natural context. This is like saying that we all eat protein, therefore protein is safe. However, as shown with prion diseases, eating a misfolded prion protein leads to severe toxicity, even though the same protein exists in humans.

Glyphosate tolerant and Bt Crops well-known to be toxic

MON87411 not only presents unknown risks associated with dsRNA technology, it also presents known hazards associated with glyphosate tolerance, Bt crops as well as the genetic engineering process itself (for a review of both glyphosate-tolerant and Bt crop toxicities and the genetic hazards see [23] Ban GMO’s Now, Special ISIS report). Glyphosate toxicity is currently under immense scrutiny by international governments, scientists as well as consumers. It has recently been banned for private use in the Netherlands, and has also been partially banned in Sri Lanka due to its links to a fatal kidney disease epidemic that is also affecting citizens of Central America (see [24] Sri Lanka Partially Bans Glyphosate for Deadly Kidney Disease Epidemic, SiS 62). Scientific studies, doctors reports as well as farmers and citizen first hand evidence has linked glyphosate to a wide range of health and environmental problems, including birth defects, cancers (see [25] Glyphosate and Cancer, SiS 62) including B cell lymphoma [26], kidney problems, DNA damage, neurotoxicity, digestive problems, endocrine disruption, infertility (see [27] Glyphosate/Round up & Male Infertility, SiS 62), reproductive problems, toxicity to wildlife including reptiles, amphibians, aquatic organisms as well as habitat destruction. Bt crops have similarly been linked to health and environmental issues including allergies, respiratory issues and effects on non-target organisms. Finally, the process of genetic engineering and the inclusion of genetic elements that are capable of horizontal gene transfer to other organisms for example bacteria, including those in the human gut pose serious health threats. For a review of the effects of glyphosate-tolerant and Bt crops, as well as the underlying genetic effects of transgenic crops.

Article first published 06/05/14



References

  1. USDA ‘Nonregulated Status; Petitions: Monsanto Co.; Maize Genetically Engineered for Protection Against Corn Rootworm and Resistance to Glyphosate.’ (Docket ID: APHIS-2014-0007), posted 7th March 2014
  2. Ramaseshadri P, Segers G, Flannagan R, Wiggins E, Clinton W, Ilagan O, McNulty B, Clark T, Bolognesi R. Physiological and cellular responses caused by RNAi- mediated suppression of Snf7 orthologue in western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) larvae. PLoS One 2013, 8(1):e54270. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054270. Epub 2013 Jan 18
  3. Ho MW. New GM Nightmares with RNA. Science in Society 58, 2013
  4. Ho MW. RNA Interference “Complex and Flexible”. Science in Society 59, 2013
  5. Grimm D1, Streetz KL, Jopling CL, Storm TA, Pandey K, Davis CR, Marion P, Salazar F, Kay MA. Fatality in mice due to oversaturation of cellular microRNA/short hairpin RNA pathways. Nature 2006, 441 (7092), 537-41
  6. Qiu S, Adema CM, Lane T. A computational study of off-target effects of RNA interference. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005, 33, 1834-47. Print 2005.
  7. lbashir SM, Harborth J, Lendeckel W, Yalcin A, Weber K, Tuschl T. Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells. Nature 2001, 411, 494–8.
  8. Bass BL. The short answer. Nature 2001, 411, 428–9.
  9. Cortessis VK, Thomas DC, Levine AJ, Breton CV, Mack TM, Siegmund KD, Haile RW, Laird PW. Environmental epigenetics: prospects for studying epigenetic mediation of exposure-response relationships. Hum Genet 2012, 131, 1565-89. doi: 10.1007/s00439-012-1189-8. Epub 2012 Jun 28
  10. Chen X1, Zen K, Zhang CY. Reply to Lack of detectable oral bioavailability of plant microRNAs after feeding in mice. Nat Biotechnology 2013, 31, 967-9. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2741.
  11. Lejeune E, Allshire RC. Common ground: small RNA programming and chromatin modifications. Curr Opin Cell Biol 2011, 23, 258–65.
  12. Zhang L Hou D, Chen X, Li D, Zhu L, Zhang Y, Li J, Bian Z, Liang X, Cai X, Yin Y, Wang C, Zhang T, Zhu D, Zhang D, Xu J, Chen Q, Ba Y, Liu J, Wang Q, Chen J, Wang J, Wang M, Zhang Q, Zhang J, Zen K, Zhang CY. Exogenous plant MIR168a specifically targets mammalian LDLRAP1: evidence of cross-kingdom regulation by microRNA. Cell Research 2012, 22, 107-26. doi: 10.1038/cr.2011.158. Epub 2011 Sep 20.
  13. Ho MW. How food affects genes.Science in Society 53, 12-13, 2o12 http://www.i-sis.org.uk/How_Food_Affects_Genes.php
  14. Wang K, Li H, Yuan Y, Etheridge A, Zhou Y, Huang D, Wilmes P, Galas D. The complex exogenous RNA spectra in human plasma: an interface with human gut biota? PLoS One 2012, 7 (12):e51009. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051009. Epub 2012 Dec 10.
  15. Mitchell PS, Parkin RK, Kroh EM, Fritz BR, Wyman SK, Pogosova-Agadjanyan EL, Peterson A, Noteboom J, O'Briant KC, Allen A, Lin DW, Urban N, Drescher CW, Knudsen BS, Stirewalt DL, Gentleman R, Vessella RL, Nelson PS, Martin DB, Tewari M. Circulating microRNAs as stable blood-based markers for cancer detection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008, 105, 10513-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0804549105. Epub 2008 Jul 28.
  16. Chen X, Ba Y, Ma L, Cai X, Yin Y, Wang K, Guo J, Zhang Y, Chen J, Guo X, Li Q, Li X, Wang W, Zhang Y, Wang J, Jiang X, Xiang Y, Xu C, Zheng P, Zhang J, Li R, Zhang H, Shang X, Gong T, Ning G, Wang J, Zen K, Zhang J, Zhang CY. Characterization of microRNAs in serum: a novel class of biomarkers for diagnosis of cancer and other diseases. Cell Research 2008, 18, 997-1006. doi: 10.1038/cr.2008.282.
  17. Cortez MA, Bueso-Ramos C, Ferdin J, Lopez-Berestein G, Sood AK, Calin GA. MicroRNAs in body fluids--the mix of hormones and biomarkers. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2011, 8, 467-77. doi: 10.1038/nrclinonc.2011.76.
  18. Kosaka N, Izumi H, Sekine K, Ochiya T. microRNA as a new immune-regulatory agent in breast milk. Silence 2010, 1, 7. doi: 10.1186/1758-907X-1-7.
  19. Witwer KW, McAlexander MA, Queen SE, Adams RJ. Real-time quantitative PCR and droplet digital PCR for plant miRNAs in mammalian blood provide little evidence for general uptake of dietary miRNAs: limited evidence for general uptake of dietary plant xenomiRs. RNA Biology 2013, 10, 1080-6. doi: 10.4161/rna.25246. Epub 2013 Jun 3.
  20. Snow JW1, Hale AE, Isaacs SK, Baggish AL, Chan SY. Ineffective delivery of diet-derived microRNAs to recipient animal organisms. RNA Biology 2013, 10, 1107-16. doi: 10.4161/rna.24909. Epub 2013 May 3.
  21. Dickinson B, Zhang Y, Petrick JS, Heck G, Ivashuta S, Marshall WS. Lack of detectable oral bioavailability of plant microRNAs after feeding in mice. Nat Biotechnology 2013 Nov;31(11):965-7. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2737.
  22. Cogoni C, Macino G. Post-transcriptional gene silencing across kingdoms. Curr Opin Genet Dev 2000, 10, 638–43
  23. Ho MW and Sirinathsinghji E. Ban GMOs Now, ISIS, 2013, http://www.i-sis.org.uk/Ban_GMOs_Now.pdf
  24. Sirinathsinghji E. Sri Lanka Partially Bans Glyphosate for Deadly Kidney Disease Epidemic. Science in Society 62 (to appear) 2014. http://www.i-sis.org.uk/Sri_Lanka_partially_bans_glyphosate.php
  25. Ho MW. Glyphosate and Cancer. Science in Society 62 (to appear) 2014. http://www.i-sis.org.uk/Glyphosate_and_Cancer.php
  26. Schinasi L, Leon ME. Non-hodgkin lymphoma and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide chemical groups and active ingredients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014, 11, 4449-527. doi: 10.3390/ijerph110404449.
  27. Ho MW. Glyphosate/Roundup & human male infertility. Science in Society 62 (to appear) 2014. http://www.i-sis.org.uk/Glyphosate_Roundup_and_Human_Male_Infertility.php

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Al Rosenkranz Comment left 6th May 2014 20:08:54
Please delay approval for this until independent studies can be done and the safety of this product be determined. I am so very concerned with the effects of these substance on the ground and the ability for our foods to be grown on it and our water. Without food and water we can not survive and a dead planet is od no use to anyone. Thank you Al Rosenkranz

Clarice Fambo Comment left 6th May 2014 20:08:47
Why don't we have the right to know what is in our food and give us the choice whether we want it in our bodies and our families bodies as well? This just isn't right. We keep using and approving all kinds of chemicals and putting either on or in our food and we have nothing to say about that either. That is why everyone is getting cancer. It's a billion dollar industry! Caused mostly by crap that is banned in all Europe but we still use it. It really should stop. Let our voice be heard. We want harmless, truly harmless food for us and our children. Isn't right we don't or we have to spend so much more to buy organic in hopes of not getting cancer.

Leslie Howton Comment left 6th May 2014 20:08:33
I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. RNAi technologies are in their infancy, as is the scientific field underlying it. The incomplete understanding of this field has hampered their translation into successful therapeutic strategies, with many mammalian studies highlighting the potential lethality and/or toxicity of RNA- based treatments. A crop destined for widespread human consumption surely demands much more thorough investigation than the limited work of dubious quality performed by the patent holder, which could hardly be expected to find anything. BAN GMO's NOW!!!!

donna cantore Comment left 6th May 2014 20:08:10
I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. RNAi technologies are in their infancy, as is the scientific field underlying it. The incomplete understanding of this field has hampered their translation into successful therapeutic strategies, with many mammalian studies highlighting the potential lethality and/or toxicity of RNA- based treatments. A crop destined for widespread human consumption surely demands much more thorough investigation than the limited work of dubious quality performed by the patent holder, which could hardly be expected to find anything. My concerns are explained here:

Vicki stevens Comment left 6th May 2014 20:08:54
Having our food safe, should be our given right! Make things right!

Jami Andreo Comment left 7th May 2014 06:06:50
I am against the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. With so many consumers of this crop there definitely needs to be a thorough investigation of the safety and health effects of this corn. This country has rising cancer rates as well as autism rates which may very we'll be linked to the consumption of poisonous pesticides. I am afraid to eat processed foods and meat as well as fresh vegetables because everything is grown and raised in chemical and bacteria ridden environments. Ban this crop and start providing Americans with nutritious and safe foods! This should be your obligation.

Jennifer Mansfield Comment left 7th May 2014 06:06:37
Essentially what this product is attempting to accomplish has lethal repercussions. The benefits do not outweigh the detriments. It is unlikely that the toxicity of a substance meant to perform an action of eradicating harmful elements is necessary or effective when ultimately these toxins are worse then any consequences of nature. I would prefer to eat natural healthy organic substances conducive to my human cellular structures, then risk my life with laboratory chemicals that cause more affliction than benefits. How these substances were ever allowed to touch our farms and the products we consume is unfathomable to my mind as a consumer. How they were ever considered "safe" in determination of usage is beyond unfathomable to my mind as a consumer. The fact that consumers are perplexed and outraged by this knowledge should give fair warning to these industries that they have corrupted our trust by corrupting our well-being and should seek to remedy our concerns by removing these hazards from our food. Anything less is an outrageous demonstration of poor business and will more than likely be met with a discontinuance of demand (for products that are less then optimum to human health and for what we consider to be far more volatile and hazardous then the risks of pests and previous challenges to organic farming). I am in firm support of eliminating toxic substances from our farmlands and restoring our natural balance. Nature is a far better care-taker then those who would malign her with poisonous concepts and lethal solutions. The human race has become a haven of cancer thanks to these methods of erroneous reckless (or calculated) pursuits.

Mark Oosterbaan Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:13
My English isn't that good, so i copy the sample from the website. I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. RNAi technologies are in their infancy, as is the scientific field underlying it. The incomplete understanding of this field has hampered their translation into successful therapeutic strategies, with many mammalian studies highlighting the potential lethality and/or toxicity of RNA- based treatments. A crop destined for widespread human consumption surely demands much more thorough investigation than the limited work of dubious quality performed by the patent holder, which could hardly be expected to find anything. THEY HAVE TO STOP TRY TO CREATE SOMETHING, WHAT IS ALREADY MADE BY MOTHER NATURE. PEOPLE ARE CONNECTED TO NATURE, NOT TO CHEMICALS. STOP POISON OUR FOOD, OUR LIVES, OUR CHILDREN, THE PLANET, ETC.. STOP PLAYING GOD.. BAN GMO's FOREVER!!!!

Mark Oosterbaan Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:31
My English isn't that good, so i copy the sample from the website. I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. RNAi technologies are in their infancy, as is the scientific field underlying it. The incomplete understanding of this field has hampered their translation into successful therapeutic strategies, with many mammalian studies highlighting the potential lethality and/or toxicity of RNA- based treatments. A crop destined for widespread human consumption surely demands much more thorough investigation than the limited work of dubious quality performed by the patent holder, which could hardly be expected to find anything. THEY HAVE TO STOP TRY TO CREATE SOMETHING, WHAT IS ALREADY MADE BY MOTHER NATURE. PEOPLE ARE CONNECTED TO NATURE, NOT TO CHEMICALS. STOP POISON OUR FOOD, OUR LIVES, OUR CHILDREN, THE PLANET, ETC.. STOP PLAYING GOD.. BAN GMO's FOREVER!!!!

valerie giles Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:14
If it's so safe why do you need protective suits to apply your toxins.?? Why is it not served in your buildings, and why aren't you eating it.??? Stop the poisoning of the people.!!

Barb Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:51
I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. RNAi technologies are in their infancy, as is the scientific field underlying it. The incomplete understanding of this field has hampered their translation into successful therapeutic strategies, with many mammalian studies highlighting the potential lethality and/or toxicity of RNA- based treatments. A crop destined for widespread human consumption surely demands much more thorough investigation than the limited work of dubious quality performed by the patent holder, which could hardly be expected to find anything. My concerns are explained here:

Cathy Osmundson Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:41
Please do away with GMO products!! Our animals and people do not need to be fed poison!! Stop Monsanto from paying people and businesses/corporations off. No wonder our world is SICK!! Cancer, autism, other diseases.... Please pay attention! Do what's right, rather than what Makes money~ Thank you, Cathy

Lisa Jenkins Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:34
I believe the reason there is a hundred fold increase in autism is because of our food supply. We are the guinea pigs and its not right! The mice and rats given these seeds in testing either get cancer, tumors or die! Please go back to non-gmo crops and make our food safe no matter where we buy it. This will be the downfall of the human race if we don't stop now!

Mike Smieja Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:18
I can't even believe this is a debate. The people that allow GMOs should have their right to make decisions taken away for life. This is so simple, let us decide if we want to eat GMOs or not. Require labeling. Simple let the consumer choose. DUH, it really is that simple

Catherine Dickson Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:13
We the People deserve food that isnt going to harm us! Seriously think about what you are doing. On top of this YOU ALL SHOULD BE IMPRISONED FOR THIS! EACH AND EVERYONE OF YOU! Shame on you! By the way, whats on your plate you bunch of sickos. You deserve the most unbearable HELL there is. Bon Appetite, Enjoy your meals Cathi

Catherine Dickson Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:51
We the People deserve food that isnt going to harm us! Seriously think about what you are doing. On top of this YOU ALL SHOULD BE IMPRISONED FOR THIS! EACH AND EVERYONE OF YOU! Shame on you! By the way, whats on your plate you bunch of sickos. You deserve the most unbearable HELL there is. Bon Appetite, Enjoy your meals Cathi

Catherine Dickson Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:32
We the People deserve food that isnt going to harm us! Seriously think about what you are doing. On top of this YOU ALL SHOULD BE IMPRISONED FOR THIS! EACH AND EVERYONE OF YOU! Shame on you! By the way, whats on your plate you bunch of sickos. You deserve the most unbearable HELL there is. Bon Appetite, Enjoy your meals Cathi

diane angelino Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:21
MONSANTO'S GLYPHOSATE IS POISONING PEOPLE, ANIMALS, FISH AND OTHER WILDLIFE. MONSANTO MUST BE STOPPED.

Donna Sand Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:14
Keep our food safe . Do not approve this.

Michael Nesbitt Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:08
If you approve this product, it will be more evidence that the big corporations are actually in control of our government! Please reject it!! There are too many chances for disaster until more is known!!!

Michael Nesbitt Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:03
If you approve this product, it will be more evidence that the big corporations are actually in control of our government! Please reject it!! There are too many chances for disaster until more is known!!!

Beth Kuykendall Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:25
Leslie Howton Comment left 6th May 2014 21:09:33 I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. RNAi technologies are in their infancy, as is the scientific field underlying it. The incomplete understanding of this field has hampered their translation into successful therapeutic strategies, with many mammalian studies highlighting the potential lethality and/or toxicity of RNA- based treatments. A crop destined for widespread human consumption surely demands much more thorough investigation than the limited work of dubious quality performed by the patent holder, which could hardly be expected to find anything. BAN GMO's NOW!!!!

Lorna Roberts Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:51
This is insanely stupid.I would have no problem with technology if it is ever proven safe. For the present I believe Nature is extremely complex and far beyond our present understanding.

L hall Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:16
We don't want GMO food! Label it at least.

Tammy Hibner Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:08
Please, don't sell our future! No amount of profit is worth what this poison will do to our children!

Maude Labelle Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:02
I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. RNAi technologies are in their infancy, as is the scientific field underlying it. The incomplete understanding of this field has hampered their translation into successful therapeutic strategies, with many mammalian studies highlighting the potential lethality and/or toxicity of RNA- based treatments. A crop destined for widespread human consumption surely demands much more thorough investigation than the limited work of dubious quality performed by the patent holder, which could hardly be expected to find anything. BAN GMO's NOW!!!!

Marie Labelle Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:53
I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. RNAi technologies are in their infancy, as is the scientific field underlying it. The incomplete understanding of this field has hampered their translation into successful therapeutic strategies, with many mammalian studies highlighting the potential lethality and/or toxicity of RNA- based treatments. A crop destined for widespread human consumption surely demands much more thorough investigation than the limited work of dubious quality performed by the patent holder, which could hardly be expected to find anything. BAN GMO's NOW!!!! I won't eat corn until i know this is out of the market!!

Tracey Dang Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:41
I am very very opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. Please don't let Monsanto do any more harm on our health and the health of our future.

Catherine Kincaid Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:07
I oppose Monsanto corn. There are so many reasons not to grow it.

KPR Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:12
I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. I do not consent to be experimented on. I do not consent to have my minor children experimented on, either.

Beth Bailey Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:45
I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. RNAi technologies are in their infancy, as is the scientific field underlying it. The incomplete understanding of this field has hampered their translation into successful therapeutic strategies, with many mammalian studies highlighting the potential lethality and/or toxicity of RNA- based treatments. A crop destined for widespread human consumption surely demands much more thorough investigation than the limited work of dubious quality performed by the patent holder, which could hardly be expected to find anything. My concerns are explained here: http://www.i-sis.org.uk/petition_for_mon87411.php

AnneMarie Call Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:41
I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. RNAi technologies are in their infancy, as is the scientific field underlying it. The incomplete understanding of this field has hampered their translation into successful therapeutic strategies, with many mammalian studies highlighting the potential lethality and/or toxicity of RNA- based treatments. A crop destined for widespread human consumption surely demands much more thorough investigation than the limited work of dubious quality performed by the patent holder, which could hardly be expected to find anything. My concerns are explained here: I am a cancer survivor, nurse & health care worker, who volunteers at the American Cancer Society. I offer hope & support to cancer patients & their families. Toxic chemicals & pesticides are destroying the health of the American population. Cancer is on the rise. The American people deserve to know what is in their food. Our inalienable rights: life/liberty/pursuit of happiness are controlled by corporations & chemical companies. We demand clean food,clean water & clean air.. the U.S. economy also relies on "pesticide free" food & water. Other countries are banning/rejecting our "toxic food". Our ground water is being polluted. This insanity must be stopped. Please, think of the American people & protect us from corporate stupidity. The future of America is in your hands. We're asking you to make informed decisions for a better tomorrow. PLEASE!!!

Tami Mormile DeMarco Comment left 7th May 2014 05:05:25
I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. RNAi technologies are in their infancy, as is the scientific field underlying it. The incomplete understanding of this field has hampered their translation into successful therapeutic strategies, with many mammalian studies highlighting the potential lethality and/or toxicity of RNA- based treatments. A crop destined for widespread human consumption surely demands much more thorough investigation than the limited work of dubious quality performed by the patent holder, which could hardly be expected to find anything.

Patricia Comment left 7th May 2014 11:11:27
God did a fine job making and growing corn . We don't need or want GMO poison. We have all seen the reports in the lab of the mice and rats. As for me I do not want to see my children grandchildren great-grandchildren go through the tumors or and the other health problems GMO's create. If you want population control then you need to buy a gun bullets work better and poison. Or should I say faster

h masih Comment left 7th May 2014 12:12:35
I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. RNAi technologies are in their infancy, as is the scientific field underlying it. The incomplete understanding of this field has hampered their translation into successful therapeutic strategies, with many mammalian studies highlighting the potential lethality and/or toxicity of RNA- based treatments. A crop destined for widespread human consumption surely demands much more thorough investigation than the limited work of dubious quality performed by the patent holder, which could hardly be expected to find anything.

Tamra Comment left 7th May 2014 12:12:15
I oppose the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. We don need any more pesticides or GMO foods. No one can tell me it safe, they cannot possibly know the short/long term effects of GMOS. And we do not NEED it. We have the right to eat our food the way nature intended!!!

Sam Comment left 7th May 2014 13:01:24
I am opposed to the approval of M0N 87411 ! I love my food the way that G-D made it ! We do not need any GMO foods or pesticides. We have a right to be able to have access to naturally occurring foods and. G-D given health !

J Coyne Comment left 7th May 2014 14:02:16
I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. RNAi technologies are in their infancy, as is the scientific field underlying it. The incomplete understanding of this field has hampered their translation into successful therapeutic strategies, with many mammalian studies highlighting the potential lethality and/or toxicity of RNA- based treatments. A crop destined for widespread human consumption surely demands much more thorough investigation than the limited work of dubious quality performed by the patent holder, which could hardly be expected to find anything

Nathalie Comment left 7th May 2014 14:02:03
I am opposed to MON it's seven 411 I will only purchase and eat any certified organic non-GMO foods and feed those to my family it is appalling that this was allowed to begin with and this needs and your killing our children!

eric dragoo Comment left 7th May 2014 18:06:31
label our food so WE can choose what we buy and put into our bodies and the bodies of our families!

Mel Edwards Comment left 8th May 2014 06:06:36
Please do not allow Monsanto to go farther without the proper oversight necessary to protect me and my family from unforeseen problems that will arise.

Jennifer sears Comment left 8th May 2014 06:06:31
I am opposed! Science that does not consider future risk and does consider the outcome of it's actions is irresponsible and reckless! Leave the worlds food alone! The earth has provided food for millions of years just fine on it's own leave it alone!!!

Melissa Comment left 8th May 2014 06:06:24
If everyone get sick any die from all these chemicals they keep putting in our food how would they keep making their precious little paper money they can't stop contaminated people food.

Inès Chabbi Comment left 8th May 2014 06:06:13
Accepting this GM corn is not caring about our lives and children lives. Wake up, save the planet, don't destroyed it !

Roberta Horne Comment left 16th May 2014 17:05:52
I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. RNAi technologies are in their infancy, as is the scientific field underlying it. The incomplete understanding of this field has hampered their translation into successful therapeutic strategies, with many mammalian studies highlighting the potential lethality and/or toxicity of RNA- based treatments. A crop destined for widespread human consumption surely demands much more thorough investigation than the limited work of dubious quality performed by the patent holder, which could hardly be expected to find anything. My concerns are explained here:

Pamela Jarvis Comment left 1st September 2014 15:03:24
We need to concentrate on a gentle way to grow food and feed for animals. Too much poison is being passed to humans thru our food supply. We are still dealing with Vets exposed to Agent Orange. Now you want to spray it on our food. Future generations do not need this problem, here in the USA or any country. Quit bullying the little poor countries, and Americans. Aren't you rich enough?

Mary Larkin Comment left 1st September 2014 15:03:17
I prefer to have no toxic properties in my food. Really.,if food already kills bugs and weeds, I don't want to eat it.

Brian Lain Comment left 1st September 2014 20:08:31
I will never eat this crap; this petion is fruitless because the outcome has been predetermined in favour of Monsanto. Eventually all biotech will fail. But they will have made their money at the expense of your grandchildren. Evil !

g t Comment left 2nd September 2014 07:07:31
Genetic engineering is not for the benefit of humans; it is for maximizing corporate profits. If it was for the benefit of humans, it would be sold out in the open, labeled in big lettering on the front of the box. "New, improved, genetically modified to the max for your benefit!"

Tracy Spurling Comment left 2nd September 2014 14:02:29
All this toxic poison being shoved into our food is killing people or making them very sick which is over taxing the health care system and causing financial hardships with so many families. Why are so many other countries banning GMOs if they are safe??? They know. These GMOs are also killing our bees that we need to continue future growth of our natural food supply. Look at all the facts please. Plus the GMOs are infecting the "real" crop fields from down the road slowly making it impossible to get real food on this continent. Get more facts and unbiased data before making such a Huge decision to approve something so important to humans. Meanwhile, please make it so our food is labeled telling us if it's GMO because we have a right to know and then decide for Ourselves what we choose to eat. Stop forcing the Americans to eat poison, so big manufacturers can profit, it's sooo wrong!! Force them to investigate safer, Non- toxic ways to protect crops! Your job is to protect the American people so do it! Protect us!

Sharon Underwood Comment left 4th September 2014 06:06:58
I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. RNAi technologies are in their infancy, as is the scientific field underlying it. The incomplete understanding of this field has hampered their translation into successful therapeutic strategies, with many mammalian studies highlighting the potential lethality and/or toxicity of RNA-based treatments. A crop destined for widespread human consumption surely demands much more thorough investigation than the limited work of dubious quality performed by the patent holder, which could hardly be expected to find anything negative.

Suzanne Reynolds Comment left 5th September 2014 18:06:59
I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. These manipulated foods are filled with chemicals, and in turn, we are becoming human pesticide facilities, ruining our health, and the soil for future crops. Read the facts on the number of babies being born with food intolerances, as well as the number of new cases that are occurring at fast rates for children and adults. It's time to protect Americans as other countries have done, and ban GMO crops and Monsanto's genocide of humans and our food chain.

Kristin Deck Comment left 5th September 2014 18:06:50
I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. It seems juvenile to point out that the company holding the patent shouldn't do the research. That's like putting someone on trial for murder and asking them to be their own judge. OF COURSE THEY WOULDN'T be guilty. Use some common sense.

Edward Fisher Comment left 5th September 2014 18:06:41
The addition of GMO's toto our food supply is basically wrong , everything you add to the leaves of a food crop is transferred to the fruit it pears. To expose humans to these chemicals is a travesty and a tragedy.. Eliminate Monsanto's do not allow this to happen . STOP 87411!!

Drew culver Comment left 5th September 2014 18:06:36
I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. RNAi technologies are in their infancy, as is the scientific field underlying it. The incomplete understanding of this field has hampered their translation into successful therapeutic strategies, with many mammalian studies highlighting the potential lethality and/or toxicity of RNA-based treatments. A crop destined for widespread human consumption surely demands much more thorough investigation than the limited work of dubious quality performed by the patent holder, which could hardly be expected to find anything negative.

Janet Comment left 5th September 2014 20:08:46
I am very opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. It is this sort of genetic manipulation that is putting such a strain on our world; the air, the water, the soil, our wildlife and humans. We cannot allow a huge corporation to play God (and make a huge profit) at the expense of this earth, most importantly the people that inhabit it. We DO NOT KNOW what ills this type of technology can mean to future generations. I would love to leave this world a better place for my children & grandchildren. We MUST stop the poisoning of this planet. Also, require labeling on all current GMO products. It is shameful that these mega corporations can put chemicals into our food without our knowledge. Please STOP Monsanto GMO's.

Cheryl Aref Comment left 5th September 2014 20:08:36
My family and I don't want GMO Frankenstein food! Keep it out of our stores. It's my right to know what is in the food. And I choose not to feed my family that vile posin. That has been proving to be cancerous . Say NO to Monsanto !

Allison Turner Comment left 5th September 2014 20:08:27
I oppose the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn!! You are poisoning our lives and the lives of innocent children and future generations. Your Monsanto created projects are cancerous and toxic and lead to infertility as well. No good will come from this unnatural corn. Monsanto is toxic as a whole and needs to be stopped!! No pesticides and chemicals allowed in our foood supply!! If bugs and animals won't eat it, then clearly it isn't safe for human consumption!!!! Absolutely NO GMOS!!!!!!

Martin Stange Comment left 6th September 2014 12:12:26
Good Day from Germany, please stop GMOS worldwide ! Keep it out of every store in every Country! Choose which food you will buy...and do not Forget..there are a lot of brother and sisters going the same way and fight against GMO!!! peace

Audrey Anderson Comment left 12th September 2014 15:03:48
I oppose the approval! Remove all GMO products and let's all return to eating normal food as the earth intended! Say no to Monsanto and stand up for basic human rights to eat healthy and holistically.

Mary Ann Konovitz Comment left 12th September 2014 17:05:32
I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn. RNAi technologies are in their infancy, as is the scientific field underlying it. The incomplete understanding of this field has hampered their translation into successful therapeutic strategies, with many mammalian studies highlighting the potential lethality and/or toxicity of RNA-based treatments. A crop destined for widespread human consumption surely demands much more thorough investigation than the limited work of dubious quality performed by the patent holder, which could hardly be expected to find anything negative.

Kim Orent Comment left 12th September 2014 17:05:29
This needs to come to an end for our childrens future and our planets future.Stop corporations from poisoning the people, that is your job right?

Sandi Comment left 12th September 2014 17:05:43
STOP the INSANITY! If you don't we will STOP Eating these products it is that simple! I am opposed to the approval of Monsanto MON 87411 corn Also we realize the meat we eat is coming from animals that ingest corn!

Diana Lutz Comment left 14th September 2014 07:07:52
Please Ban Monsanto and their products , seeds and poisonous sprays killing everyone and eveything ,Plus No one wants to eat a GMO

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