Science in Society Archive

Important Books & Reports

Banishing Glyphosate

Banishing Glyphosate - Dr. Eva Sirinathsinghji, Dr. Mae-Wan Ho and others

Glyphosate/Roundup, falsely claimed by Monsanto to be safe and harmless, has become the world’s most widely and pervasively used herbicide; it has brought rising tides of birth defects, cancers, fatal kidney disease, sterility, and dozens of other illnesses - more

Ban GMOs Now

Ban GMOs Now - Dr. Mae-Wan Ho and Dr. Eva Sirinathsinghji

Health & environmental hazards especially in the light of the new genetics - more

Living Rainbow H2O

Living Rainbow H2O - Dr. Mae-Wan Ho

A unique synthesis of the latest findings in the quantum physics and chemistry of water that tells you why water is the “means, medium, and message of life” - more

The Rainbow and the Worm - the Physics of Organisms

The Rainbow and the Worm - the Physics of Organisms - Dr. Mae-Wan Ho

“Probably the Most Important Book for the Coming Scientific Revolution” - more

Terminator Recombinase Does Scramble Genomes

The 'terminator technology that genetic engineers seed sterility to enforce corporate patents on seed has been universally condemned and rejected as being contrary to human rights. They are now being promoted as a means of preventing gene flow by the US and UK Govts, and I-SIS has uncovered that terminator crops are undergoing field trials in the UK, and have been grown elsewhere in Europe since 1990 (See I-SIS Press Release 6 Dec. 2000).

I-SIS has warned also of the dangers involved in the technology, and predicted that the recombinase enzyme used will scrambled genomes (see 'Terminator in new guises' I-SIS News #3, December 1999.This has now been demonstrated in transgenic mice engineered with the recombinase.

The recombinase Cre is part of the 'site-specific recombination' Cre/lox system originally isolated from the bacteriophage (bacterial virus) P1. Cre catalyses recombination between two lox sites, splicing out any stretch of DNA in between. The lox site is a 34 basepair element consisting of 13 basepair inverted repeat separated by a core of 8 basepairs. In order to work, the 8 basepair core of the two lox sites have to be in the same orientation.

The system is not only used in plants, but extensively exploited in transgenic mice. Studies in the test-tube have shown that Cre recombinase can catalyze recombination between DNA sequences found naturally in yeast and mammalian genomes. These 'illegitimate sites' often bear little sequence similarity to the lox element. However, there have been no reports on such illegitimate recognition in the animals or plants themselves. And there have even been pilot studies using the Cre/lox system in human gene therapy.

In a study just published (1), researchers in the United States showed that high levels of Cre expression in the spermatids of heterozygous transgenic mice leads to 100% sterility in the males, despite the absence of any lox sites. Heterozygous mice carry only one copy of the Cre recombinase gene.

The sterility is caused directly by the recombinase enzyme scrambling the genome, essentially by breaking and rejoining DNA at inappropriate sites on the same or different chromosomes. The researchers have pinpointed the genome scrambling event to the time at which the two 'daughter' spermatids and their paired chromosomes have just separated from each other; but are still joined by a 'cytoplasmic bridge'. This is enough to allow the enzyme to pass from the spermatid containing the recombinase gene to the other which does not, thereby to scramble up the chromosomes of both the transgenic and nontransgenic spermatid. The result is 100% sterility. Embryos fertilized by these sperms arrest predominantly at the 2 cell stage, and do not go beyond the four cell stage.

The researchers warn: 'These results indicate that Cre can catalyze illegitimate recombination having overt pathological consequences in animals.' A similar recombination system is found in animals containing the RAG recombinases. There, illegitimate recombinations in somatic cells are linked to human leukemias.

Drs. Mae-Wan Ho and Joe Cummins

Article first published 08/12/20


  1. Schmidt, E.E., Taylor, D.S., Prigge, J.R., Barnett, S. and Capecchi, M.R. (2000). Illegitimate Cre-dependent chromosome rearrangements in transgenic mouse spermatids. PNAS 97, 13702-13707.
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