leaks continue from the badly damaged structures as the dangerous operation of moving
spent fuel rods begins, and still greater challenges of decommissioning the meltdown
reactors yet to come; international help is urgently needed to stem the ongoing
release of deadly radioactive isotopes and remediate the badly contaminated
environmentDr Mae Wan Ho
TEPCO’s risky operation goes ahead amid calls for international oversight
In a desperate attempt to cope with the continuing crisis
since the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear meltdowns, TEPCO (Tokyo Electric Power
Company) began the risky and complex operation of moving more than 1 300 spent
fuel rods from a badly damaged storage pool towards the end of November 2013
 amid stern warnings that it should not tackle the task unaided. The Unit 4 pool
is precariously perched on top of a tilting, sinking building that could come
crashing down in the next earthquake or all by itself . Harvey Wasserman,
American journalist, author, democracy activist, and advocate for renewable
energy, delivered a petition with more than 15o ooo signatures to UN Secretary
General Ban Ki-Moon calling for the world to take charge of the operation ,
in vain. Independent researchers have pointed to a litany of possible mishaps.
Prime Minister Shinzo Abe himself has sought foreign assistance , and a
draft proposal by a panel of Japan’s ruling party said that TEPCO should not be
in charge of the Fukushima shutdown . In the end, the Japanese government passed
a State Secrets Act to impose a news embargo
on reports of the continuing crisis at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Plant .
Behind the news embargo, we are
told that a team of 36 is working 6 shifts around the clock, and will take
until the end of 2014 to complete the removal of the spent fuel from the
damaged pool, provided no glitches happen . That is just the start. Further
fuel rod assemblies are held in similar pools in buildings for reactors 1, 2
and 3. Reactors 1, 2 and 3 were running when the tsunami and earthquake struck
and all suffered meltdown. The radiation in the buildings housing the reactors
is so intense that access remains limited. More
challenging yet is to dig out the molten cores in the reactors, some of which
have already burnt through the primary containment and fused with the
cladding steel and concrete. That will not start until 2020. It may take 40
years to fully decommission the Fukushima plant.
Akira Tokuhiro, a University of
Idaho professor of mechanical and nuclear engineering, is among those calling
for a larger international role at Fukushima. Even
for the US nuclear industry, such a cleanup and decommissioning would be a
great challenge; all the more so for TEPCO . The lack of experts is worse at
the regulatory level: there are none. Japan’s Nuclear Regulation
Authority has no one devoted to decommissioning, said spokesman Juntao Yamada,
though it has experts dealing with the ongoing removal of fuel rods from the
Unit 4 pool.
Another voice for international oversight is Kiyoshi Kurokawa, head of a Diet panel that
investigated the Fukushima disaster . He said the global nuclear
power industry needs to share cross-border information to prevent accidents, as
in international air traffic control. The transparency from international
oversight is necessary to prevent the collusion that contributed to the
Fukushima disaster. Kurokawa’s report, released in July
2012, was scathing. It called the disaster man-made and cited “collusion” between
TEPCO and its previous regulator, The Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency,
to avoid implementing new safety rules.
Meanwhile, a thousand tons of
heavily contaminated water pours through the Fukushima site daily (see Box 1),
further undermining the unstable structures, including the damaged building
supporting the Unit 4 fuel pool. Also on site are thousands of storage tanks,
many of them makeshift, containing hundreds of thousands of tons of highly radioactive
water, and they are leaking.
contamination to ocean and throughout the site
Documents obtained by the Asahi
Shimbun (Japan’s international daily news) reveal that US nuclear experts
had urged TEPCO to install frozen soil barriers as early as April 2011 to try
and prevent groundwater contamination . But TEPCO officials sent a memo to
government officials to delay the announcement so as to protect the company’s
finances and investors’ confidence. Banri Kaieda,
then head of the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI), which oversees
the promotion of nuclear power, agreed to hold off the announcement, with TEPCO
Executive Vice President Sakae Muto reportedly promising to quietly proceed
with the ice wall project, which he has not done. TEPCO denies that Muto made
such an agreement.
Two and a half years later, an estimated 800 to 1 000 tons
of groundwater flow down through the plant each day, with 300 tons of
contaminated water entering the ocean. In addition, 400 tonnes of contaminated
water a day seep into the damaged reactor buildings. Workers are unable to
identify where the water is entering the buildings or how to stop the seepages.
The radiation levels remain so high that they cannot get close enough to do
Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s administration has promised $470
million of taxpayers’ money to begin building the ice wall, as international
pressure mounts in advance of the 2020 Summer Olympic Games recently awarded to
Tokyo. But the ice wall could lead to release of heavy radioactive nuclides now
bound in the soil and worsen the contamination of ground water and the Pacific
Prof Jota Kanda at Tokyo University of Marine Science and
Technology argues that government statistics don’t add up. His research showed
that 3 billion Bq (Becquerel, one disintegration per second) of caesium (Cs-137
and Cs-134) were flowing into the port at Fukushima Daiichi every day, much
higher than can be accounted for by just contaminated ground water .
He was proven right, as highly radioactive water was leaking from the storage
tanks (see main text).
Spent fuel assemblies a major hazard in exposed and
Apart from those being moved from the Unit 4 pool, more than
6 000 spent fuel assemblies are still sitting in a common pool just 50 metres
from Unit 4, some containing plutonium. The pool is not contained, leaving it
vulnerable to loss of coolant, the collapse of a nearby building, earthquake,
or other mishap .
In fact, more than 11 000 fuel assemblies are
scattered around the Fukushima site, amounting to 85 times as much lethal
caesium as was released at Chernobyl, according to long-time expert and former
Department of Energy official Robert Alvarez.
Spent fuel must be kept under
water, as it is clad in zirconium alloy that will spontaneously ignite when exposed
to air. Each uncovered rod emits enough radiation to kill a person nearby in a
matter of minutes. A fire could force all personnel to flee and make electronic
machinery stop working. A new fuel fire at Unit 4 would spew out a continuous
stream of lethal radiation poisons for centuries.
Arnie Gundersen, nuclear engineer for forty
years, who once manufactured fuel rods, points out that the fuel rods in Unit 4
core are bent, damaged and brittle to the point of crumbling. Cameras have
revealed worrying quantities of debris in the already wrecked fuel pool. The
engineering and scientific barriers to emptying the unit 4 pool are “unique and
daunting,” says Gundersen, and must be done to “100% perfection”.
Radioactive water leaking from
storage tanks and emergency dumping
As of mid-September, TEPCO was
storing 435 000 tons of radioactive water in aboveground tanks as well as in
basements of the reactor buildings, 137 000 more tons than were stored the
previous year , and rising. But these storage tanks are leaking.
On 30 August 2013, Japanese
Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced an “emergency” at the unstable Fukushima
Nuclear Plant, and thousands of tons of highly radioactive material were dumped
into the Pacific Ocean. This followed an announcement ten days earlier that a
“recent incident” had resulted in 300 tonnes of “heavily contaminated water”
being leaked from a storage tank into the ocean every day. On 26 August, the government took charge of running the
emergency measures; but this resulted in the fresh emergency of thousands of
tonnes of heavily radioactive material being dumped into the Pacific. A
public statement called for the immediate evacuation of residents within a 50
mile radius of the facility, claiming that the leaked material has caused the
ocean to “boil” for several hundred yards offshore from the crippled plant.
In early September,
radiation readings shot up by more than 20 % to their highest levels .
Radiation hotspots have spread to three holding areas for hundreds of the tanks
storing water contaminated by being flushed over three reactors that melted down
in March 2011. Readings just above the ground near a set of tanks showed
radiation as high as 2 200 mSv (millisievert) on 3 September 2013 (a day before
a 6.9 magnitude earthquake off southern Japan); the previous high in areas
holding the tanks was 1 800 mSv recorded 3 days earlier. Both levels would kill
an unprotected person within hours. (See Box 2 for the different units of
Measures of radioactivity
Radioactivity is measured
directly as becquerel (Bq), 1Bq = 1 disintegration per second. It is also
measured as absorbed dose, Gray (Gy), 1 Gy = 1 J(joule) of energy per kg
(kilogram); the sievert (Sv) is the equivalent radiation
dose, effective dose or committed dose, representing the
biological effects of ionizing radiation, and involves further calculations on
the absorbed dose based on different weighting factors for different radiation.
For x-rays, gamma rays, beta rays and muons, the weighting factor is 1, hence
1Gy=1 Sv. 1 sievert carried a 5.5 % chance of eventually developing cancer.
Doses greater than 1 sievert received over a short period of time are likely to
cause radiation poisoning, possibly leading to death within weeks.
Consequently, the usual measure is in millisievert (mSv), a thousandth of a
TEPCO said one of the tanks was
leaking the previous month. Another small leak was found later and the rising
number of areas with concentrated radiation is raising concerns of further
leaks. The government has ordered TEPCO to transfer all the water held in about
310 weaker bolted tanks to more reliable wielded tanks that take longer to
build, although an NRA official has said some of the wielded tanks too might
not be safe, as they are lined up on the ground rather than on a concrete
On 24 October 2013, TEPCO announced it had
detected radioactive strontium and other beta- emitting substances measuring
140 ooo Bq/L(litre) in water sampled in one of the facility drainage ditches 
(see Figure 1). It was the highest radiation level recorded since it began
checking water in drainage ditches in August. The legal limit for strontium
emission is 30 Bq/L. The ditch where the high radiation level was detected is
near the tank that was discovered in August to have leaked ~300 tons of
radioactive water. The site is just 700 metres from where the ditch empties
into the ocean. TEPCO workers have placed sandbags further along the ditch in
an attempt to prevent radioactive material reaching the ocean.
Figure 1 Diagram
of the stricken Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Plant
To deal with the pools of
contaminated rainwater accumulated since two typhoons that brought heavy
rainfall to the Fukushima plant, TEPCO moved the water to the underground storage
tanks that the company had stopped using after radioactive water escaped from
one of them in April 2013 .
wells in the area have begun to show increasing levels of contamination .
Samples taken from one well near the leak on 14 September tested 170 000 Bq/L
On 21 December 2013, a new record of 1.9
million Bq/L of beta-emitting radioactive substances was found in water at its
No. 2 reactor. And radioactive caesium was detected in deeper groundwater at
No. 4’s well .
water from Fukushima nuclear plant will reach the west coast of the United
States early in 2014 , though airborne
radioactivity started arriving on the US Pacific Coast just 4 days after the
start of the accident (see later).
Shortage of workers, low pay and morale & high costs
to the taxpayer
TEPCO president Naomi Hirose said the company was looking to
transfer workers from power plants elsewhere in order to address the growing
staff crisis at Fukushima Daiichi. There have been reports of workers at the
plant suffering from low pay and morale, long hours and illegal hiring
practices, sometimes involving organized crime syndicates .
Documents have emerged revealing TEPCO’s
refusal to pay for the costs of the Fukushima cleanup, and the refusal being
accepted by the government. The government is selling bonds to finance the
assistance to TEPCO Interest payments on which may reach 70.4 billion yen, and
to be borne by the Japanese taxpayer. The decontamination costs alone are
estimated at more than 5 trillion yen (~US$50 billion).
Continued dumping of
radioactive water into the ocean and mass die-offs in the Pacific
TEPCO has admitted it dumped 1 130
tons of reportedly low-level radioactive water into nearby Pacific Ocean in
early September, after heavy rainfall resulted in water collecting within
barriers set up around the tanks of contaminated water . Officials said the
water contained between 3 and 23 Bq/L radioactive strontium. Although the legal
limit for strontium in seawater is 30 Bq/L, TEPCO later acknowledged that they
had not tested the water for caesium Cs-134 or Cs-137.
TEPCO has also
indicated that in the end, all low-level radioactive water will be dumped into
the Pacific Ocean . It is trying to decontaminate highly radioactive water
with an ‘advanced liquid processing system’ that can strip all radioactive
substances from the water except tritium. It claims the system will eventually process
500 tonnes of water a day. But the equipment has failed repeatedly so far.
The Pacific Ocean
has been a sink for high and low levels of radioactively contaminated water for
more than two and a half years, with no end yet in sight. The first meltdown
incidents beginning 11 March 2011 spewed out 2.5 times more radioactive
Xenon-133 than Chernobyl and 40% of the Cs-137, with 80 % ending up in the
Pacific Ocean. It was already the single largest radioactive discharge into the
ocean, by far (see later).
been worrying reports of mass deaths of animals over the past year . Polar bears, seals and walruses along the Alaska coastline are
suffering fur loss and open sores, according to US Geological Survey. There is
an epidemic of sea lion deaths along the California coastline. At island
rookeries off the southern California coast, 45 % of pups born in June have
died, according to Sharon Melin, a wildlife biologist for the National Marine
Fisheries Service based in Seattle. Normally less than one-third of the pups
would die. “It’s gotten so bad in the past two weeks that the Nation Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration declared an “unusual mortality event”. Along the
Pacific coast of Canada and Alaska coastline, the population of sockeye salmon
is at a historic low. Fish all along the west coast of Canada are bleeding from
their gills, bellies and eyeballs. More disturbingly, from Canada to
California, starfish are dying en masse. They simply disintegrate and
turn into ‘goo’ . No one has examined whether the toxic radioactivity
released from Fukushima may be responsible for the mass deaths. But a vast
field of radioactive debris from Fukushima approximately the size of California
has crossed the Pacific Ocean and is starting to collide with the east coast .
Radioactivity of coastal waters off the US west could double over the next five
to six years. The are other signs that the Fukushima crisis has gone global
There is still no
systematic scientific monitoring on the impacts to the Pacific while release of
radioactivity from Fukushima continues unabated. One potentially highly
effective method for stripping radioactive nuclides from water uses graphene
oxide  (see Graphene
Oxide for Nuclear Decontamination, SiS 59). There is an urgent need
for international effort to stem the radioactive leak into the Pacific, and to
mop up the radioactivity released before the Ocean dies.
The official line is that no one
has died from the Fukushima accident, and very few will, if any. The reality is
The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of
Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has been criticized by human rights groups and UN
special rapporteur on the right to health, Anand
Grover , for its studies on Fukushima finding “no discernible
increased incidence of radiation-related health effects are expected.” Japan’s
Human Rights Now have also called for UNSCEAR’s report to be revised and
recommend that evacuation from contaminated areas where radiation exceed 1
millisievert per year rather than the government’s recommendation of 20
millisievert a year.
Data on casualties
from the Fukushima meltdown and fallout are hard to come by. But even TEPCO has
admitted that 10 % of 2 000 Fukushima Nuclear Plant workers face 
“increased thyroid cancer risk” due to exposure to nuclear radiation. There
were no official deaths from radiation among the 50 workers who bravely stayed
on site to deal with the aftermath of the accident, although the supervisor Masao
Yoshida died of oesophagus cancer in July 2013 .
However, fifty-one crew members
of USS Ronald Reagan say they are suffering from a variety of cancers as a
direct result of their involvement in Operation Tomodachi, a US rescue mission
in Fukushima after the nuclear disaster in March 2011. The affected sailors are
suing TEPCO . All in their 20s, the sailors have been diagnosed with thyroid
cancer, testicular cancer, leukaemia, people going blind from tumours on the
brain, and all kinds of gynaecological problems. The numbers could grow
significantly as 150 additional crew members are being screened. The sailors’
lawyer Charles Bonner says that at least 75 sailors are affected.
The US sailors are certainly not
alone. Thyroid cancer rates have shot up in Fukushima children . Before the
nuclear meltdowns, health authorities estimated thyroid cancer rates among
Fukushima’s children at between one and two cases in every million. Since the
disaster, the Fukushima local government carried out a large-scale screening
programme, and with about 200 000 children tested, found 18 confirmed cases of
thyroid cancer and 25 more suspected cases, an unexpectedly high rate.
One person who is impressed and
worried about the increased thyroid cancer rate among Fukushima’s children is Akira Sugenoya, mayor of Matsumoto City in Nagano, and also a
respected thyroid surgeon. He spent five years treating children in Ukraine and
Belarus suffering from thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl disaster, and is
highly critical of official dismissal of the findings. “The doctors in
Fukushima say it shouldn’t be emerging this fast, so they say it’s not related
to the accident. But that’s very unscientific, and it’s not a reason that we
can accept.” Other experts, such as Geraldine Thomas a specialist in molecular
pathology of cancer at Imperial College London in the UK argues that “if you
look for a problem, especially if you use an incredibly sensitive technique,
which is what the Japanese are actually, you will find something.”
In November 2013, 15 more young
people were confirmed or suspected as having thyroid cancer . But Fukushima’s health authorities are acting almost in secret ,
even refusing requests for a simple age breakdown of the thyroid cancer
victims, citing privacy reasons. This fuels accusations of cover-up by the
a study on newborns in five US Pacific Coastal states exposed to airborne
radioactivity including I-131 from the Fukushima fallout revealed a 26 %
increase the incidence of congenital hypothyroidism in the months after
airborne radioactivity arrived in the US, compared with equivalent periods the
previous year, and also with the rest of the US, which is less exposed  (Congenital
Hypothyroidism & the Fukushima Fallout in the USA, SiS 61).
is not all. The Fukushima nuclear accident spread radioactive contamination
over more than 3 500 square miles of the Japanese mainland. An in-depth study
involving both field work and lab experiments found deformities in wild caught
butterflies caused by low-dose radiation from the Fukushima fallout persist and
worsen over generations, and could be reproduced by internal and external
exposure to radioactivity in the lab  (Fukushima
Mutant Butterflies Confirm Harm from Low-Dose Radiation, SiS 56).
This is just the tip of the iceberg as far as long-term ecological impacts are
Researchers led by Jacqueline Garnier-Laplace at the French
Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) in Cardarache used
measurements of radioactivity in soil samples collected
31 March from the zone of greatest atmospheric deposition, the Litate Village area located 25-45 km northwest of the
Fukushima site . Soil concentration of Cs-134 was 62 400 Bq/kg, Cs-137, 72 900 Bq/kg and I-131 108 000 Bq/kg (with back
calculations to the date of deposition estimated at 430 000 Bq/kg). These were
used to estimate the dose rate absorbed by forest biota, taking account of both
external radiation from the contaminated environment, as well as internal
radiation from radionuclides incorporated within the organisms. These
gave dose rates of 1 mGy/d over the first 30 days for plants, 1.5 for bird, 2.3
for soil invertebrates, and 3.9 for forest rodents. If other radioisotopes
measured in the soil were included, the total dose rate estimates ranged from 2
to 6 mGy/d. These values are 10 to 100 times greater than dose rates considered
safe for terrestrial ecosystems. The lack of a more severe impact to the forest
ecosystem is partially due to the accident occurring in late winter.
Much more severe impacts are
likely for the coastal ecosystem next to the Fukushima nuclear plant. The dose
rates were performed similarly, except that they include external irradiation
by the contaminated marine sediments as well as the surface water. Seawater
concentration of I-131 reached 180 000 Bq/L on 30 March with an associated 47
000 Bq/L of Cs-137 measured 330 m offshore. Activity concentrations decreased
rapidly with distance due to very high dilution in the seawater. Nonetheless,
maximum dose rates for I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 ranged from 210 to 4 600
mGy/day, lowest for marine birds and the highest for macroalgae, with
intermediate values of 2 600 mGy/day for benthic biota – fish molluscs, cruataceans.
The calculated dose rates and ecological impacts are presented in Figure 2.
2 Calculated dose rates and ecological impacts on different terrestrial and marine
“At such high
dose rates, marked reproductive effects, and even mortality for the most
radiosensitive taxa are predicted for all marine wildlife groups whose life-history characteristics confine them to the
near-field, contaminated release area,” the authors concluded . Dominique
Boust, director of the IRSN in Cherbourg suggests that sediments in the region
could contain 10 000 to 10 million Bq/kg shortly after the accident in 2011 .
Fish could carry 10 000-100 000
Bq/kg and algae, some particularly susceptible to iodine uptake, could contain
up to 100 million Bq/kg. These amounts would
decrease very quickly with time.
However, these conclusions
were disputed in a study of surface water radioactivity released from the
Fukushima meltdown by Ken Buesseler at Woods Hole Massachusetts US Michio
Aoyama at the Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, and Masao Fukasawa at
Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology Yokosuka . Concentration
of radioactivity peaked in early April with Cs-137 at 68 million Bq/m3
one month after the earthquake, decreasing by a factor of 1 000 in the month
following. Concentrations through the end of July remained higher than expected
implying continued releases from the reactors or other contaminated sources,
such as groundwater or coastal sediments (as consistent with the leaks
discovered later). By July, levels of Cs-137 were still more than 10 000 times
higher than levels measured in 2010 in the coastal waters off Japan (see Figure
3 Surface ocean water concentrations of radioactivity from 21 March to 31
As expected the highest
concentrations were at the points closest to the discharge site, and less at
two other sites on the coast at increasing distances south of the Fukushima
Dai-ichi plant. Dilution occurred rapidly as can be seen by the much lower
concentrations measured at points 30 km from the coast (green dots).
Chernobyl accident in 1986, an increase in waters off Japan was barely seen,
but in the Baltic and Black Seas they peaked in a sharp spike in 1986 in the
10-1 000 Bq/m3 range; about a million times below the Fukushima activities
of Cs-137 immediately at the discharge point and 10 times below the initial levels
at the 30 km monitoring line. Thus, the initial release from Fukushima was a
larger source by far, already the largest accidental release of radionuclides
to the ocean. Astonishingly, these researchers concluded that it would still
have “minimal impact on marine biota of humans due to direct exposure in
surrounding ocean waters.”
mass deaths on the Pacific northeast coast (see above) may indeed have been
triggered by the massive radioactive release into the ocean water and
accumulating in the ocean sediment, as predicted by the French scientists. But
no one appears to be doing any systematic monitoring.
radioactivity drops off to low levels, there is a large literature on the long
term deleterious impacts of low dose radiation, recently explained through
bystander effects affecting cells that are not directly targeted by the
radiation (see  Bystander
Effects Multiply Dose and Harm from Ionizing Radiation, SiS 55)
by Timothy Mousseau at University of South Carolina and Anders Møller at Université Paris Sud and their colleagues showed that
birds in Chernobyl had high frequency of albino feathering and tumours as well
as increased rates of cataracts decades after fallout from the 1986
Chernobyl meltdown , while tree growth was and remains suppressed. They
undertook those studies in response to the World Health Organization’s
Chernobyl Forum 2006, which, apart from vastly under-reporting human health
impacts, stated that plant and animal communities doing “incredibly well and
come back better than ever because of the absence of people.” In reality, there
is no single scientific paper to base that statement on. The opportunities to
study the long term impact of low level radioactive exposure in nature are once
again slipping away in Fukushima as with Chernobyl. “The funding for
independent scientists to do basic research in contaminated areas in Fukushima
is not there.” And at the same time, the fine work that has been done  was
ferociously attacked by nuclear supporters as well as the pro-nuclear
No easy homecoming for
Approximately 160 000 people were
forced to evacuate in the first days of the crisis, and tens of thousands
remain displaced . The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science
and Technology estimated total decontamination costs at $50 billion. Municipal
officials are concerned that residents will not return, as decontamination
efforts have not been successful, and fear of radiation remains high. Many
former residents are worried that conditions at the Fukushima plant are still
the government lifts evacuation orders once radiation levels fall below 20 mSv
per year, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends
exposure no more than 1 mSv per year. Many residents no longer believe official
radiation estimates released by the Japanese government, which are often lower
than readings gathered by citizens and independent organizations using
hand-held Geiger counters. Nobuyoshi Ito, a farmer from Iitate, told Reuters,
“They remove the ground under the posts, pour some clean sand, lay down
concrete, plus a metal plate, and then put the monitoring post on top. In
effect, this shields the radiation [emitting] from the ground. I asked the
mayor, ‘why don’t you protest to the central government?’ But the municipality
isn’t doing anything to fix the situation.”
“Chernobyl was transparent compared to fukushima”: Harvey
Wasserman on ongoing crisis”, Laura Flanders, Truthout, 19 November 2013,
“Japanese nuclear expert: radiation levels defected in
Pacific Ocean too high to be explained by a daily leakage of 300 tons”,
Infinite Unknown, 19 August 2013, http://www.infiniteunknown.net/tag/jota-kanda/
“Fukushima crisis escalates radioactive material makes
ocean boil”, Nigel J Covvington III, IMGACE, 31 August 2013, http://imgace.com/pic/2013/08/fukushima-crisis-escalates-radioative-material-makes-ocean-boil/
“Starfish melting to goo in Pacific (Video)”,
Before it’s News, 9 October 2013, http://beforeitsnews.com/mass-animal-death/2013/10/starfish-melting-to-goo-in-pacific-video-2432284.html
Ho MW. Graphene oxide for nuclear decontamination.
“Fukushima nuclear plant workers face increased thyroid cancer
risk, Tepco says”, Amrutha Gayathri, International Business Times, 20 July
Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster casualties. Wikipedia,
16 December 2013,
susan Comment left 6th January 2014 18:06:40 Meantime 60 minutes a supposed media source once well respected amongst many Americans gave reports just last night of how the public has been hoodwinked and robbed by government support for renewable energy companies. It is true that some alternate energy sources supported by taxpayers have not been able to thrive due to lack of interest by US energy dept. and continued support for fossil fuel and nuclear ambitions. 60 minutes report gives a damning view of the millions lost to some renewable companies that have gone into bankruptcy but fails to mention the amount of life and billions going to cleanup oil spills in the gulf and continued transport of fossil fuel contamination just within one year here in the US.Recently as reported here: (WASHINGTON — The first installment from the $1.1 billion in bioterrorist preparedness funds was distributed to states and major cities Thursday, with nearly $20 million immediately going to California and Los Angeles County.)
Los Angeles County stretches from the ocean past the mountains to the desert. More than 10 million people live within its 4,000 square miles. And that, security officials say, makes this area a big target for terrorists.
"A 100-percent safety is an illusion, that is a fairy tale," said LAPD Chief Charlie Beck. "All we can do is get better and better at how we protect this region."
That protection is now getting a boost from the federal government.
L.A. Mayor Eric Garcetti announced an $11.4-million federal grant that will help guard against nuclear threats here. end
Dear Mayor I know it is your job to protect the people from physical threat due to outside (terror) sources however when the threats are coming from the very industries that support our economies and populations, who will take responsibility NOW.
I was given a dungeness crab. It is the season for ocean harvest. While preparing I was shocked to find the body cavity full of grey mush. Then I googled and found this:I just bought 10 live crabs from the fisherman wharf. When I came home and started preparing them, I noticed there's a huge lack of meat within the shell cavity. It's normally filled with crab meat. Any ideas why it's hollow with barely any meat? I totally wasted my money on them! :-(
Dr. Jack Comment left 7th January 2014 07:07:01 Bravo for bringing enough of the facts that this is a GLOBAL issue, not a Japanese issue. The seas are dying. Millions of sea birds have already died, and soon, the effects of decimated fish population and sea life due to radiation poisoning will be all too apparent. Will the world rally to finally help clean this up? My real question is: CAN it be stopped? So far, it doesn't look like it.
Shame on the Japanese government for the gag order. If they would have asked for help EARLY on, maybe something could have been done. But now, much in the Pacific is seeing the effects of radiation poisoning, whether you call it a "mysterious illness" or not.
Soon...the poisoning will affect more than the sea birds and sea lion are starving. It will affect more than the whales, porpoises and sea birds that have beached themselves before dying. Soon the people who depend on the food that comes from the sea will see the lack of food they can eat. Then what? Starvation?
It is unconscionable that TEPCO and the Japanese government kept the realities of this disaster to themselves, as if the Pacific Ocean was localized to Japan.
I wonder what the world's response will be. We are all waiting...
Todd Millions Comment left 16th January 2014 08:08:34 This is going too cost me-but A. Gunderson proposed 3 years ago that empty oil tankers be rushed too fukashima too hold spent contaminated water.A plastic film barrier in the tanks would slow the neutron irradiation of the steel-How much?Also-electrical current is pumped thru the ground by oil companies,to stabilize it-they keep the info on this quite close.Some force Majore too get the details,may be an exellent Idea.As perhaps injecting tar sands too form a more impervious water barrier-its not going too be more toxic in this case -is it.See W. Marsden's-"Stupid to the last drop"for useful clues and details.