ISIS Report 18/07/12
Living H2O the Dancing Rainbow Within
Dr. Mae-Wan Ho presents
highlights of her new book 'Living Rainbow H2O', World Scientific and Imperial
College Press, 2012 
fully illustrated and
of this article is posted on ISIS members website and is otherwise available
for download here
Living H2O is special
is the water that constitutes ~70 % of cells and organisms, and without which
life is impossible. Living H2O covers the surfaces of macromolecules
and membranes in cells, and interweaves with molecular fibrils of collagen and
other extracellular proteins, providing intercommunication channels throughout
the body so each molecule can keep in touch with every other in the ‘quantum
jazz’ of life. It shapes and softens macromolecules, so they can function as coherent
quantum molecular machines that transform energy at close to 100 % efficiency. Living
H2O turns the whole organism liquid crystalline because it is
liquid crystalline and quantum coherent. That’s why all organisms have a
dancing rainbow inside (as described in ( The Rainbow and the Worm, The
Physics of Organisms, ISIS publication, of which Living Rainbow H2O
is a sequel.) Last and definitely not least, water provides the electrons and
protons to fuel the photosynthesis-respiration dynamo that spins inanimate
molecules into living organisms out of pure sunlight. Water is truly the
medium, message and means of life.
itself originated in water-air and water-ice interfaces on oceans and lakes
that are especially proficient at synthesizing organic molecules. Sunlight,
wind, and waves, rain, lightning discharges, and volcanic eruptions, all conspire
in providing energy for the organic synthesis and to create aerosols from the
organic microlayers that are re-deposited to enrich the molecular diversity and
complexity of interfaces until proto-life finally burst onto the scene.
in vitro systems of bulk water or bulk water on macroscopic interfaces are
remarkable enough; and very important for understanding living H2O;
but they cannot compare with the incredibly dynamic situation inside the living
cell. Water in bulk is also demonstrably different from water confined in a
variety of non-living nanospaces that are more representative of the
intracellular and extracellular milieu in life. Indeed living water is
predominantly water confined to nanospace.
water occupies percolating fractal nanospaces approximated by a mathematical
Sierpinski’s sponge. (A fractal is a structure with fractional dimensions that
exhibit self-similarity over different scales.) Similarly, the fractal
structure of collagen fibres and sheets in the extracellular matrix ensures
that extracellular water is also in fractal nanospaces. Together, intracellular
and extracellular water permeates and interconnects the entire organism. That
is why living H2O is perfect for intercommunication over all space-time
scales, both locally and globally. Indeed, recent findings indicate that water
confined in nanospace is both quantum coherent and superconducting  (Superconducting
Quantum Coherent Water in Nanospace, SiS 55). It is time to
take the new cell biology based on water seriously.
Let me present some highlights in living water’s continuing biopic.
coherent domains in bulk liquid water & in nanospace
important feature of water is the hydrogen bond that connects water molecules
into an extended network involving more than 95 % of the molecules at room
temperature at any instant, though the bonds are extremely dynamic, making and
breaking in a matter of picoseconds (10-12s).
hydrogen bond appears to separate liquid water into two states: one with the bond
angles and lengths in tetrahedral configuration as in ordinary ice (Figure 1)
and the other with much less order, corresponding to low density water and high
density water respectively.
Figure 1 Water molecules
hydrogen-bonded in tetrahedral ice-like fashion
usual explanation for the tetrahedral ice-like hydrogen bonding is that it is
the thermodynamically favoured state according to electrostatic interactions
between positively and negative charged parts of the molecules. But that is not
turns out that the ice-like tetrahedral configuration is a consequence of
quantum mechanical interactions in liquid water. More specifically, it is a
consequence of quantum coherent domains forming in bulk liquid water even at
room temperature and pressure, predicted by a quantum electrodynamics field theory
due to Giuliano Preparata, Emilio del’Guidice and colleagues at University of
Milan in Italy. The interaction between liquid water and the ambient
electromagnetic field excites water molecules to form stable coherent domains
that oscillate in phase with the electromagnetic field. Liquid water is thus a
mixture of coherent domains about 100 nm in diameter interspersed with
incoherent domains in the proportion of ~4:6 at room temperature. The
tetrahedral 4-coordinated structure is associated with the coherent domains,
while more disordered, non-tetrahedral hydrogen-bonding is associated with the
incoherent domains, corresponding respectively to low density and high density
water that other researchers have identified.
domains can be stabilized at interfaces even in the bulk phase, according to
del’Giudice and colleagues, accounting for the hundreds of microns thick water
on the surface of hydrophilic gels that excludes solutes and have other amazing
properties rediscovered by Gerald Pollack’s team in University of Seattle,
alternative bonding structures are readily adopted in the coherent domains when
confined at sufficiently small dimensions (nanometres).
Maniwa and colleagues at Tokyo Metropolitan University and researchers at
several other Japanese universities and research institutes, found that water
inside single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) - manufactured to high precision
with bore diameters between 1.68 and 2.40 nm - undergoes a wet-dry transition
as the temperature is lowered. Below the transition temperature Twd,
the ice that forms slips out of the carbon nanotube, leaving it in a dry state.
Twd increases with increasing diameter, from 218 K to 237 K.
But in SWNTs with smaller bore diameters, water behaves very
differently. Maniwa’s team produced the first phase diagram of confined water
in SWNTs (Figure 2).
Figure 2 Temperature-diameter
phase diagram of water inside SWNT left; XRD, X-ray diffraction data, NMR,
nuclear magnetic resonance data; MD, molecular dynamics simulation; dotted line
represents melting point of water in a capillary tube; * indicates solid phase
obtained when rapidly quenched from high temperature; arrows a and b mark the
diameters to either side of 1.4 nm where structures of water are presented
(right) based on calculations, as hollow tubes when water content is low, and
filled tubes when water content is high
As can be seen, at diameters >
~1.6 nm, the phase transition curve is rather similar to that of water in an
ordinary capillary tube, increasing with diameter. (This water is still quite
distinct from bulk water which freezes at 273 K; instead, it remains liquid at
that temperature within all the confined spaces between 1.6 to 2.5 nm.) However,
at diameters < ~1.4 nm, the phase transition curve goes dramatically in the
opposite direction. The transition temperature rises sharply from ~170 K to 300
K as diameter decreases from ~1.4 nm to 1.17 nm. At the smallest
diameter, the water remains frozen at room temperature.
Thus, water is almost infinitely
flexible, which is why it forms a kaleidoscopic array of crystalline and
quasicrystalline structures within the SWNTs, as in even ordinary snowflakes,
each of which is unique. (A quasicrystal is an ordered structure that is
not periodic, it lacks translational symmetry, which means that an arbitrary
part of it cannot be shifted from its original position to another without
destroying the symmetry. While crystals, according to the classical
‘crystallographic restriction theorem’, can possess only two, three, four, and
six-fold symmetries, quasicrystals shows other symmetry orders, for instance
five-fold, which is ‘forbidden’.)
fascinatingly, new evidence suggests that water confined in nanospace less than
~2.0 nm in diameter take on coherent quantum states that differ in energy
according to the precise diameter of the nanospace, and the coherent quantum
states are all very different from that of water in the bulk phase . The
hydrogen-bonding proton between the oxygen atoms of two neighbouring water
molecules, O-H···O is effectively delocalized between the oxygen
atoms, so you can no longer distinguish between the covalent O-H bond on the
left and the H···O hydrogen bond on the right. That is why the
confined water also super-conducts protons, which is extremely important for
intercommunication within the cell and the organism. The movement of protons
(and electrons) is the basis of the reduction/oxidation, or redox reactions
that supply energy for all living activities (see later).
self-assembly and metabolic channelling
ability to form a variety of crystalline and quasicrystalline structures is
most probably the reason it can help colloid crystals and quasicrystals
self-assemble for numerous applications in nanoscale photonics and electronics.
Colloids are nanoparticles of dimensions ranging from nanometres up to several mm
suspended in water or other solvents. And colloid crystals are literally
crystals made of colloid particles arranged in orderly fashion, like atoms in
2011, an international team led by Stephan Förster at the University of
Bayreuth reported colloid quasicrystals that form spontaneously through
self-assembly in water that had 12-fold and 18-fold symmetries (see Figure 3).
Quasicrystals with 18-fold symmetry have never been reported up to then.
Figure 3 Colloid quasicrystlas
self-assembled with 12-fold (left) and 18-fold (right) symmetries
facilitated by water is the key to how cells (and organisms) are exquisitely
structured down to the molecular level such that entire enzyme pathways are in
dynamic associations, or ‘metabolons’. A metabolon channels the metabolic
product of one enzyme directly as substrate to the next enzyme in the metabolic
pathway, thereby speeding up reactions at least a thousand fold compared to
typical enzyme reactions in free solution. That is due to the extremely high
local concentrations of both enzyme and substrate confined in a nano-volume,
orchestrated and coordinated by a coherent nanodrop or of water. The Kreb’s cycle
(tricarboxylic acid cycle, citric acid cycle) is an example of a metabolon.
enzymes in reverse micelles (Figure 4) that mimic the nano-compartments in
cells often exhibit ‘superactivity’ as well as greatly improved thermostability.
(A reverse micelle has hydrophilic ends of molecules facing into the nanospace
Figure 4 A reverse micelle
how do enzymes and their substrates, and enzymes interacting with common
substrates and products in an entire metabolic pathway manage to find one
another in a cell crowded with all kinds of other molecules?
is evidence that molecules that interact emit common electromagnetic
frequencies, and are attracted by these same frequencies. So it is possible for
the interacting molecules to be attracted to the surfaces of coherent water
domains that are oscillating at, and emitting electromagnetic signals absorbed
from their surroundings. At the surfaces of the coherent water domains the
molecules are also provided with activation energy from the collective
excitations of the coherent domains to carry out the appropriate reactions.
That’s the theory, and it can be tested out by experiments on reverse micelles.
same absorption of electromagnetic signals by coherent water domains may well
underlie homeopathy. This is important in view of the claim that a DNA sequence
of more than 100 base pairs can be reconstructed from specific signals -
emitted by highly diluted samples of water previously in contact with the DNA –
which were transferred to water that had never been in contact with
the perfect medium, message & messenger
prodigious flexibility makes it the perfect medium for the ‘quantum jazz’ that
enables each molecular to intercommunicate ultimately with every other in a
light, music and dance extravaganza that spans 20 orders of magnitude in
space-time . Water enables all performers to express their full degrees of
freedom, to do their best, while providing at all times, the ultra-sensitive
intercommunication channels that may trigger an abrupt change of phase at the
is the supreme catalyst, the super-facilitator of chemical reactions, in the
form of liquid crystalline coherent water that offers activation energy and
specific attraction between enzyme and substrate; and also as the result of
dynamic switching between the two states of water as envisioned by Phlippa
Wiggins (which you can read about). In that way, water is not only the medium,
but also both message and messenger of life.
the fuel and dynamo of life
provides the very means of life as the substrate for reduction/oxidation
reactions, the fuel and dynamo that turns inanimate material into the living
the basis of energy metabolism in living organisms, is electrons (and protons)
moving between molecules and across membranes up and down the electrochemical
gradient, it is the electric current that creates and animates life. The
electrons and protons come ultimately from splitting water with energy trapped
from sunlight in the process of photosynthesis.
→ 2H+ + 2e- + O (1)
That is possible
only because coherent liquid crystalline water on interfaces is already excited,
and to nearly ionisation level (ready to be split) according to del Giudice and
colleagues, the coherent domains are effectively swarming with a plasma of
almost free electrons. In the process of splitting water, electrons come loose
with associated protons, which go to reduce carbon dioxide into carbohydrates,
and most importantly, oxygen is released to support multicellular aerobic
organisms that breathe in oxygen to oxidize the foodstuffs in respiration.
invention of photosynthesis by cyanobacteria and later, the algae and green
plants has greatly increased the electrochemical range available to the
biosphere, enabling it to expand enormously up to and including the human
and respiration is the truly the dynamo of life, the magic roundabout that transforms
inanimate molecules into living beings (Figure 5).
Figure 5 The dynamo of life
running on water
the movement of electrons actually animate the cell and organisms? One
intriguing answer is offered by Gilbert Ling more than 50 years ago in his
association-induction hypothesis. It proposes that that the major components of living
protoplasm – water, proteins, and K+ - exist in a closely
associated, high-energy state at ‘rest’. Within the resting cell, most if not
all proteins are fully extended (instead of being bound up in a-helix
or b-pleated sheet secondary structure as usually portrayed)
so that the peptide bonds along their polypeptide backbone are free to interact
with water molecules to form ‘polarized oriented multilayers’ (POM) of water
molecules (which I call liquid crystalline water), while the carboxylate
side-chains preferentially bind K+ over Na+. Both are due
to the ubiquitous presence of ATP in living cells. And that is perhaps why ATP
is maintained at a constant concentration in living cells.
the absence of ATP, proteins tend to adopt secondary structures – a-helix,
or a b-pleated sheet - as hydrogen bonds form between peptide
bonds in the same chain or between different chains, so they don’t interact
with water. In this state, the carboxylate and amino side chains are also
unavailable for binding ions, as they can pair up in a salt linkage
(combination of basic and acidic groups) with each other. And the water next to
the protein is in a more disordered state.
when ATP is bound to a certain ‘cardinal site’ of the protein, it withdraws
electrons away from the protein chain, thereby inducing the hydrogen bonds to
open up, unfolding the chain, exposing the peptide bonds on the backbone, and
enabling them to interact with water to form POM. At the same time, the
carboxylate and amino side chains open up to interact with the appropriate
inorganic cation and anion respectively. The cation is K+ in
preference to Na+, because ATP binding turns the carboxylate group
into a strong acid that prefers K+ over Na+; which
explains why the intracellular concentration of K+ is so much higher
relative to Na+. When ATP is split into ADP and Pi, and detaches
from the protein, the reverse change takes place, the protein reforms its
secondary structure and expels the POM water.
the major change in the water between an ordered coherent liquid crystalline (POM)
state and a relatively disordered state that accompanies a mechanical change in
the protein from an extended to a folded-up conformation. Something like this
could well be how actin and myosin function in muscle contraction, and how
molecular-motors function in other cells.
has referred to his model as an ‘elemental living machine’ that is generally
applicable to how proteins work, by electronic induction. In
conventional cell biology, ligands binding to receptors, phosphorylation of key
proteins, transient Ca2+ pulse, etc., are so-many ‘signal
transductions’ that cause a ‘conformation change’ in some key protein that
leads to downstream effects. If Ling is right, they are all aspects of
electronic induction – either electron withdrawing or electron donating - which
changes the proteins and associated coherent water structure, resulting
in a major state transition in the ‘nanoprotoplasm’ that substantially alters
the chemical propensities of molecules.
the flow of electrons are movement of protons in a ‘protoneural network’, as
envisaged by Rickey Welch, now at Cambridge University UK, that delivers the
appropriate chemistry as required, not only within the cell, but throughout the
extracellular matrix of the entire organism.
hope you can see by now that life based on water is quantum electrodynamic
through and through. Water provides the substrate, the fuel and generator that
animate life. It is the source of free electrons and protons that wire up
organisms making and breaking complex molecules for organisms to develop and
grow, to multiply and to do all that makes life passionate and exciting. At the
same time, it provides the perfect medium for molecules to perform their best
at all time and to intercommunicate with one another. Living water thereby acts
as perfect messenger between molecules and delivers the message of the global
coherent whole in the quantum jazz extravaganza of life.
There are 2 comments on this article so far. Add your comment
|Amanda Blay Comment left 18th July 2012 22:10:37|
The mention of the quantum electrodynamic and the reference to the absorption of electromagnetic signals - could this assist in an understanding of electro- hypersensitivity recognised by some individuals - perhaps we should re-examine the effect of ambient electromagnetic fields in our environment and how they influence the health of plant and mammals.
Plus recognise the combined effect of all the different frequencies to which we are routinely exposed 24 hours a day
|Mae-Wan Ho Comment left 19th July 2012 09:09:21|
Yes indeed, ISIS has many articles on the issue of organisms' sensitivity to ultraweak electromagnetic fields such as high tension power lines and mobile phones dating back 10 years. This issue is dealt with in some detail also in Living Rainbow H2O.
We are all sensitive to ultraweak electromagnetic fields, some people exhibit more obvious symptoms and are recognized as electrosensitive. But even asymptomatic people are affected. The evidence linking frequent use of mobile (and cordless) phones to brain tumours (both benign and malignant) is substantial.